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Notes

1. Giovanni Mercati, Niccolo Perotti, pp. 161-3.

2. Pastor, History of the Popes, vol. IV, pp. 237, 257-8, quoting A. Schmarsow, Melozzo da Forlì (Berlin, 1886), p. 18.

3. Ibid., pp. 236-7, quoting A. von Reumont, Geschichte der Stadt Rom, vol. III (Berlin, 1870), p. 165.

4. From F. Gregorovius, Geschichte der Stadt Rom im Mittelalter, 3rd edn, vol. VII (Stuttgart, 1880), p. 231.

5. Pastor, vol. IV, pp. 238-9. Platina (Bartolomeo dei Sacchi) was Vatican librarian under Sixtus IV; he wrote brief lives of the popes. Jacopo Ammannati was a learned cardinal.

6. ASforzesco, b. 68: Gianantonio Ferrofin(?), 6 Aug. 1471; ibid.: Nicodemo da Pontremoli to Cecco Simonetta, 20 Nov. 1471; ibid.: Nicodemo, 15 Sept. 1471; b. 69: Giovanni Arcimboldi et al., 12 Jan. 1472.

7. Ibid., b. 69: Archbishop of Novara, 25 Apr. 1472; Nicodemo, 26 Apr. 1472; b. 70, c. 33: Sixtus IV to Galeazzo Maria Sforza, 6 May 1472.

8. Ibid., b. 70, c. 132: Giovanni Arcimboldi, 29 May 1472.

9. Ibid., b. 69: Arcimboldi, 22 Apr. 1472.

10. Ibid., b. 71, c. 236: Archbishop of Novara and Gianandrea, 19 Nov. 1472.

11. He was promoted by the pope from count to duke in 1474.

12. AGonzaga, b. 845, c. 122: Gianpietro Arrivabene, 16 Jan. 1474.

13. Ibid., c. 121: Gianpietro to Barbara Gonzaga, 16 Jan. 1474.

14. ASforzesco, b. 73: Galeazzo Maria Sforza to Sacromoro, 27 Oct. 1473; b. 74: Sacromoro, 13 Jan. 1474.

15. AGonzaga, b. 845, c. 149: Gianpietro Arrivabene, 15 June 1474.

16. ASforzesco, b. 76: ‘Iuntinus de Pistoris(?)’ to Sacromoro, 11 June 1474, Todi.

17. Ibid.: Sacromoro, 21 (?) June 1474.

18. Flavio di Bernardo, Gianantonio Campano, pp. 363-74.

19. AGonzaga, b. 845, c. 231: Cardinal Francesco Gonzaga, 9 July 1474.

20. ASforzesco, b. 77: Vincula to Sixtus, 31 Aug. 1474, Città di Castello.

21. AGonzaga, b. 845, c. 167: Gianpietro Arrivabene, 9 Sept. 1474; c. 169: Arrivabene, 16 Sept. 1474.

22. ASforzesco, b. 77: Sacromoro, 2 Sept. 1474.

23. Bibl. Marc. 3622, c. 2: Vincula to Sixtus, 3 Aug. 1474, from camp at Città di Castello.

24. ASforzesco, b. 70, cc. 104-6: Giovanni Arcimboldi, 14 July 1472.

25. That is, he could draw the income as abbot, but was not obliged to reside with the monks there.

26. AGonzaga, b. 845, c. 506: Gianpietro Arrivabene, 16 Nov. 1475; c. 510: Arrivabene, 29 Nov. 1475.

27. The Angevin claim to Naples dated from 1263, when Charles of Anjou accepted the investiture of the kingdom of the Two Sicilies from Urban IV, who wanted his help against the Hohenstaufen and their Ghibelline allies. The Orléans claims to Milan derived from the marriage of Valentina Visconti, half-sister of Filippo Maria, the last Visconti Duke of Milan, to Louis d’Orléans; Francesco Sforza, father of Galeazzo Maria, had married Filippo Maria’s illegitimate daughter, Bianca Maria.

28. ASforzesco, b. 963: Guido Visconti, 29 Feb. 1476, Genoa.

29. AS Milano, Autografi, Ecclesiastici, b. 32, f. 255: Vincula, 4 Mar. 1476, Savona.

30. AGonzaga, b. 845, c. 609: Gianpietro Arrivabene, 2 Apr. 1476.

31. L.-H. Labande, Avignon, pp. 197-8.

32. Paul Ourliac, ‘Le Concordat de 1472’ (1941), p. 209.

33. AGonzaga, b. 845, cc. 619-20: Gianpietro Arrivabene, 20 May 1476.

34. Labande, Avignon, p. 211.

35. ASforzesco, b. 963: Guido Visconti, 2 June 1476, Genoa.

36. ASforzesco, b. 542: Giovanni Biamo(?), 6 May 1476, Lyons.

37. Labande, Avignon, pp. 216-17.

38. Ibid., pp. 218-19.

39. ASforzesco, b. 964: Daniele de’ Rossi, 24 June 1476, Savona.

40. Ibid., b. 80: Sacromoro, 18 Feb. 1476.

41. AGonzaga, b. 845, c. 604: Gianpietro Arrivabene to Barbara Gonzaga, 9 Mar. 1476.

42. ASforzesco, b. 81: Sacromoro, 24 May 1476; Sacromoro, 30 May 1476.

43. Ibid.: Sacromoro, 17 May 1476.

44. ASforzesco, b. 80: Sacromoro, 27 Feb. 1476; b. 81: Sacromoro, 21 June 1476, Vetralla; b. 82: Sacromoro, 29 July 1476, Narni - ‘esso cardinale non e cosi sempio, ch’el non habia gustato la natura de quello Re’; AGonzaga, b. 845, c. 676: Gianpietro Arrivabene, 15 Sept. 1476, Foligno.

45. ASforzesco, b. 82: Sacromoro, 31 Oct. 1476; Sacromoro, 13 Nov. 1476.

46. Ibid.: Sacromoro, 20 Dec. 1476.

47. See above.

48. AGonzaga, b. 846, c. 20: Gianpietro Arrivabene, 16 Mar. 1477 - ‘e in rotta col papa piu che mai’.

49. Ibid., c. 158: Gianfrancesco Gonzaga to Barbara Gonzaga, 22 Mar. 1477; 

ASforzesco, b. 83: Duchi to Sacromoro, 20 Apr. 1477, Milan.

50. ASforzesco, b. 83: Sacromoro, 14 May 1477.

51. Lorenzo de’ Medici, Lettere, vol. III, pp. 370-1.

52. Bibl. Marc. 3622, c. 1: Vincula to Sixtus, 4 Aug. 1480, Lyons.

53. ASforzesco, b. 87: copy Vincula to Sixtus, 24 Aug. 1480, Vendôme.

54. Lettres de Louis XI, vol. VIII, pp. 285-8: Louis to Vincula, 25 Oct. 1480, Plessis-du-Parc.

55. Ibid., pp. 363-6: Vincula to Louis, 29 Oct. 1480, Péronne.

56. Bibl. Marc. 3622, c. 18: Vincula to Sixtus, 10 Feb. 1481, Tours.

57. Labande, Avignon, pp. 317-18.

58. Ourliac, ‘Le Concordat de 1472’ (1942), p. 123.

59. Lettres de Louis XI, vol. IX, pp. 72-3: Louis to Consuls of Avignon, 4 Sept. 1481, Plessis-du-Parc.

60. AS Florence, Otto, b. 2, c. 228: Tommaso Ridolfi, 5 Feb. 1482, Milan.

61. ASforzesco, b. 91: Branda da Castiglione et al., 14 Jan. 1482.

62. Ibid., b. 90: Branda da Castiglione and Antonio Trivulzio, 5 Sept. 1481.

63. Ibid., b. 91: ambassadors of league, 12 Mar. 1482.

64. Ibid., b. 88: Bishop of Como and Antonio Trivulzio, 18 Mar. 1482 [misfiled]

65. AS Modena, Roma, b. 8, 34/2: Niccolò Sadoleto, 28 Apr. 1484.

66. Nothing can be found out about it, as the archives of the Penitentiary are still (1993) closed to researchers.

67. ASforzesco, b. 83: Sacromoro, 6 May 1477.

68. Ibid., b. 94: Antonio Trivulzio and Branda da Castiglione, 4 Dec. 1483.

69. Infessura, Diario, p. 129.

70. Ibid., pp. 170-1.

71. Burckhardt, Diarium, ed. Thuasne, vol. I, pp. 515-18: Guidantonio Vespucci, 29 Aug. 1484; ? to Lorenzo de’ Medici, 29 Aug. 1484.

72. ASV, Arm. XXIX, vol. 44, ff. 83v-84r.

73. AS Florence, X, b. 32, c. 103: Guidantonio Vespucci, 31 Aug. 1484.

74. AS Modena, Roma, b. 8, 35/2: Cristoforo de’ Bianchi, 13 Oct. 1484; ? to Lorenzo de’ Medici (see note 71 for reference).

75. AOrsini, b. 102, c. 10: Franceschetto Cibo to Virginio Orsini, 27 July 1485.

76. E.g. Pastor, vol. V, p. 242.

77. ASV, Arm. XXIX, vol. 44, ff. 32r-33r, 150r-v, 190v-191v.

78. AS Florence, X, b. 32, c. 213: Guidantonio Vespucci, 25 Sept. 1484.

79. AS Modena, Roma, b. 8, 35/15: Cristoforo de’ Bianchi, 13 Oct. 1484; A. Fabroni, Laurentii Medicis Magnifici Vita, vol. II, p. 316: Guidantonio Vespucci to Lorenzo de’ Medici, 25 Sept. 1484.

80. ASV, Arm. XXIX, vol. 49, ff. 31r-35r.

81. See below, this chapter.

82. ASV, Arm. XXIX, v. 49, passim.

83. di Vascho, ‘Diario’, p. 521.

84. AOrsini, b. 142, c. 20: Obietto Fieschi to Virginio Orsini, 15 Jan. 1485.

85. AS Florence, X, b. 34, c. 220: Guidantonio Vespucci, 3 July 1485.

86. AGonzaga, b. 847, c. 301: Gianpietro Arrivabene, 6 July 1485.

87. AS Florence, X di Balia, b. 34, c. 274: Guidantonio Vespucci, 23 July 1485; AGonzaga, b. 847, c. 320: Gianpietro Arrivabene, 21 July 1485.

88. E.g. E. Pontieri, Ferrante d’Aragona, pp. 450-1.

89. Pontieri, ‘La “Guerra dei Baroni” napoletani’ (1970), pp. 246-7: Jacopazzo d’Alesandro, 5 Sept. 1485, Naples.

90. E.g. ASforzesco, b. 98: Gianfrancesco Oliva, 5 Oct. 1485.

91. E.g. ASV, Arm. XXXIX, v. 19, ff. 32r, 51r, 58v-59r.

92. Infessura, Diario, pp. 192-3.

93. A. Cappelli, ‘Lettere di Lorenzo de’ Medici’, pp. 280-1: Aldrovandino Guidoni to Ercole d’Este, 22 Mar. 1486.

94. ASV, Arm. XXXIX, v. 19, ff. 285v-286r.

95. AGonzaga, b. 847, c. 534: Gianpietro Arrivabene, 18 Apr. 1486; Cappelli, ‘Lettere di Lorenzo de’ Medici’, p. 282; ASV, Arm. XXIX, v. 46, ff. 264r-266r.

96. ASV, Arm. XXXIX, v. 19, ff. 373v-374r.

97. Ibid., f. 423v; Paladino, ‘Per la storia della Congiura dei Baroni’, pp. 225-6: Battista Bendedei, 11 June 1486, Naples.

98. Infessura, Diario, pp. 201-2.

99. Pontieri, ‘La “Guerra dei Baroni” napoletani’ (1972), pp. 206-7: Bernardo Rucellai to Lorenzo de’ Medici, 26 Oct. 1486, Naples.

100. Ibid., pp. 218-9: Pierfilippo Pandolfini to Lorenzo de’ Medici, 30 Nov. 1486.

101. Volpicella (ed.), Regis Ferdinandi Primi Instructionum Liber, pp. 36-9: Ferrante’s instructions to Luigi, 24 Sept. 1486, Naples.

102. Pontieri, ‘La “Guerra dei Baroni” napoletani’ (1972), p. 246: Pierfilippo Pandolfini to Lorenzo de’ Medici, 1 Feb. 1487.

103. Bibl. Marc. 3622, cc. 13-14, 16, 20-43, 46-7.

104. ‘Dignitate status ecclesiastici’.

105. AOrsini, b. 101, c. 199: copy Albino to Ferrante, [? June 1487].

106. Pontieri, ‘La “Guerra dei Baroni” napoletani’ (1973), pp. 212-13: Pierfilippo Pandolfini to Lorenzo de’ Medici, 11 Apr. 1487; ASforzesco, b. 100: Bishop of Como, 22 Apr. 1487.

107. ASforzesco, b. 100: Bishop of Como, 16 May 1487.

108. Ibid.: Bishop of Como, 20(?) Mar. 1487. Florence and Genoa were disputing the possession of Sarzana.

109. Bibl. Marc. 3622, c. 31: Vincula to Innocent, 17 Apr. 1487, Montefano.

110. Infessura, Diario, p. 228.

111. Lettere, Istruzioni ed Altre Memorie de’ Re Aragonesi, p. 118: Ferrante to Giovanni Albino, 30 June 1487, Naples.

112. Ibid., pp. 140-1: Ferrante to Albino, 23 July 1487, Naples.

113. ASforzesco, b. 100: copy [Giangiacomo Trivulzio to Innocent] - for identification see Ibid.: Bishop of Como, 24 May 1487.

114. Infessura, Diario, p. 228.

115. ASforzesco, b. 100: Bishop of Tortona, 5 Sept. 1487.

116. AGonzaga, b. 847, cc. 786-7: copy Sigismondo Rocca, 9 Apr. 1488.

117. Ibid., b. 848, c. 461: Gianlucido Cataneo, 15 Oct. 1491.

118. Ibid., cc. 3-5: Cataneo, 18 Jan. 1489.

119. Ibid., c. 93: Cataneo, 17 Nov. 1489. For the building of the fortress

at Ostia, see below, Chap. 7.

120. ASforzesco, b. 105: Stefano Taberna to Lodovico Sforza, 22 Feb. 1492.

121. See above, Chap 1.

122. AGonzaga, b. 849, c. 55: Fioramonte Brognolo to Isabella d’Este, 18 July 1492; cc. 223-4: Antonello Salerno, 21 July 1492, Rimini.

123. ‘Inimico capitale’ - AOrsini, b. 101, c. 236: copy Virginio Orsini to Santi, 7 Apr. 1488.

124. Sigismondo de’ Conti, Le Storie de’ Suoi Tempi, vol. II, p. 56.

125. ASforzesco, b. 106: Stefano Taberna, 4 Aug. 1492.

126. G. B. Picotti, ‘Giovanni de’ Medici nel Conclave’, pp. 159-61: Niccolò  Michelozzi to Piero de’ Medici, 12 Aug. 1492.

127. Ibid., pp. 136-7: Gianandrea Boccaccio, 20 Jan. 1493.

128. AGonzaga, b. 849, c. 156: Antonio Magistrello, 11 Aug. 1492; c. 195: Silvestro Calandra, 24 July 1492, Urbino.

129. Ibid., c. 325: Gianlucido Cataneo, 3 Aug. 1493.

130. AS Roma, Archivio del Collegio de’ Notari Capitolini, vol. 176, ff. 706r-707v.

131. de’ Conti, Storie, vol. II, pp. 55-6.

132. AGonzaga, b. 849, c. 361: Giacomo Scotto to Gianlucido Cataneo, 24 Jan. 1493.

133. Ibid., cc. 89-90: Fioramonte Brognolo, 9 Dec. 1492.

134. E.g. the status of Ferrante’s daughter Beatrice, Queen of Hungary, who was resisting divorce; and the possession of Benevento.

135. Burckhardt, Diarium, ed. Thuasne, vol. II, pp. 622-4: Filippo Valori, 20 Jan. 1492(3).

136. See note 132.

137. Burckhardt, Diarium, ed. Thuasne, vol. II, pp. 630-1: Valori, 9 Feb. 1492(3); pp. 626-8: Valori, 26 Jan. 1492(3).

138. Pontieri, Ferrante d’Aragona, pp. 575-6: Vincula to Virginio Orsini, 26 Apr. 1493, Ostia.

139. AGonzaga, b. 849, c. 327: Gianlucido Cataneo, 23 Aug. 1493.

140. ASforzesco, b. 107: Stefano Taberna, 24 Sept. 1493.

141. AGonzaga, b.  849, c. 327: Gianlucido Cataneo, 23 Sept. 1493.

142. Ibid., b. 850: Cataneo, 14 Jan. 1493(4).

143. ASforzesco, b. 109: Ascanio Sforza to Lodovico Sforza, 23 Apr. 1494.

144. Lettres de Charles VIII, vol. IV, p. 15: Charles to Lodovico Sforza, 10 Feb. 1494, Amboise.

145. ASforzesco, b. 552: Carlo Barbiano to Lodovico Sforza, 6 Mar. 1494, Lyons - ‘batterlo’.

146. See below, this chapter.

147. P. Negri, ‘Studi sulla crisi italiana’ (1923), p. 131: Lodovico Sforza to Ercole d’Este, 27 Dec. 1494.

148. ASforzesco, b. 110: copy Bartolomeo Zambeccari to Nestore Palliotti, 18 June 1494.

149. ASforzesco, b. 554: Vincula to Lodovico Sforza, 28 Sept. and 1 Oct. 1494, Genoa; b. 111: Lodovico Sforza to Vincula, 6 and 9 Oct. 1494, Vigevano; AS Milan, Autografi, Ecclesiastici, b. 32: Vincula to Lodovico Sforza, 9 Oct. 1494, Genoa.

150. Originally in the service of the Duke of Burgundy, Commynes had gone over to Louis XI, and was then a councillor of Louis’s son, Charles VIII. His practical experience and knowledge of men make his memoirs a fascinating record of the politics of his day.

151. See below, this chapter.

152. Burckhardt, Diarium, ed. Thuasne, vol. II, pp. 661-6: French version of the articles between Charles and Alexander.

153. Ibid., p. 659.

154. ASforzesco, b. 114: summary of letters from Rome and elsewhere, Feb. 1495.

155. Philippe de Commynes, Mémoires, vol. II, pp. 248-50.

156. Labande, Avignon, pp. 477-98.

157. Desjardins and Canestrini, Négociations, vol. I, pp. 662-3: Francesco Soderini et al., 10 May 1496, Lyons.

158. Commynes, vol. II, pp. 358-60.

159. Commynes, vol. II, p. 359; ASforzesco, b. 506: Mafeo Pirovano, 9 Jan. 1497, Turin.

160. ASforzesco, b. 506: Pirovano, 8 Jan. 1497, Turin.

161. Ibid., b. 1223: Lucio Malvezzi, 9 Mar. 1497, Savona.

162. Ibid., b. 506: Pirovano, 7 Jan 1497, Turin.

163. Ibid., b. 558: summary of intercepted letters from Lyons to Rome.

164. Ibid., b. 153: Giovanna da Montefeltro to Pierpaolo da Cagli, 9 Jan. 1497

 Senigallia.

165. Ibid., b. 506: Pirovano, 9 Jan. 1497, Turin.

166. AGonzaga, b. 850: Sigismondo Golfo, 22 Jan. 1494, Urbino.

167. Djem had been held in the Vatican since 1489.

168. ASforzesco, b. 120: ‘Petitione facte per Fran.co Confalonero ad nome del R.mo Car.le S. P. in Vin.la’, 28 Mar. 1497, Turin.

169. Ibid., b. 389: Battista Sfondrato, 14 Jan. 1497, Venice.

170. Ibid., b. 119: Lodovico Sforza to Ascanio Sforza, 13 Jan. 1497, Milan.

171. The former Principe d’Altamura, who had succeeded his nephew Ferrantino in October 1496.

172. ASforzesco, b. 507: Mafeo Pirovano, 21 Apr. 1497, Turin.

173. Ibid., b. 121: Ascanio Sforza, 7 June 1497.

174. Ibid., b. 510: Pirovano, 28 Feb. 1498, Turin.

175. Ibid.: Pirovano, 1 May 1498, Turin.

176. See above, note 27.

177. ASforzesco, b. 558: summary of letters from Pierpaolo da Cagli, 15 May 1498, Paris.

178. Ibid.: summary of news from France written from Paris, 26 July 1498.

179. Bibl. Marc. 3622, c. 45: Vincula to Alexander, 10 July 1497, Carpentras.

180. E.g. L.-G. Pélissier, ‘Sopra alcuni documenti’ (1894), pp. 339-40: Vincula to Alexander, 11 Sept 1498, Chieri; ASforzesco, b. 559: Ascanio Sforza, 20 Mar. 1499.

181. See below, Chap. 4.

182. Giustinian, Dispacci, vol. I, p. 274: 17 Dec. 1502.

183. See below, note 185.

184. Giustinian, Dispacci, vol. II, p. 181: 4 Sept. 1503.

185. Spanish troops had originally been sent to help King Ferrantino to recover the kingdom of Naples, but in the Treaty of Granada in 1500, France and Spain agreed to partition the kingdom of Naples between them. In 1501 King Federico had been forced to surrender to a second French invasion, and had gone into exile in France. Thereafter, the Spanish in Naples were fighting to take the kingdom for themselves.

186. AS Modena, Roma, b. 14, 98-VII/11: Beltrando Costabili, 5 Sept. 1503.

187. Giustinian, Dispacci, vol. II, pp. 181-2: 5 Sept. 1503.

188. AS Modena, Roma, b. 14, 98-VII/20: Costabili, 10 Sept. 1503.

189. Giustinian, Dispacci, vol. II, pp. 195-6: 14 Sept. 1503.

190. Burckhardt, Liber Notarum, p. 370.

191. Giustinian, Dispacci, vol. II, pp. 199-202: 22 Sept. 1503; Burckhardt, Liber Notarum, pp. 372-87; AS Modena, Roma, b. 14, VII/29: Beltrando Costabili, 23 Sept. 1503; b. 19, 121-5/25: copy Lodovico Fabriano to Cardinal Ippolito d’Este, 4 Oct. 1503.

192. AS Modena, Roma, b. 14, 98-VII/81: Costabili, 8 Nov. 1503.

193. Burckhardt, Liber Notarum, p. 399.

194. AS Modena, Roma, b. 14, 98-VII/86: Costabili, 14 Nov. 1503.

195. Burckhardt, Liber Notarum, p. 399.

196. Giustinian, Dispacci, vol. II, pp. 272-3: 30 Oct. 1503.

197. Machiavelli, Legazioni, vol. II, p. 590: 31 Oct. 1503.

198. Guicciardini, Storia d’ltalia, book VI, chapter 5.

199. Sanuto, I Diarii, vol. V, col. 81.

200. Ibid., cols 383-4.

201. Ibid., col. 361.

202. Machiavelli, Legazioni, vol. II, p. 619: 11 Nov. 1503, Rome.

203. Giustinian, Dispacci, vol. II, p. 277: 1 Nov. 1503.

204. Ibid., p. 285: 8 Nov. 1503.

205. Ibid., pp. 414-18: 31 Jan. 1504.

206. Sanuto, vol. V, cols 480-1.

207. Giustinian, Dispacci, vol. II, pp. 418-20: 31 Jan. 1504.

208. Ibid., pp. 315-16: 28 Nov. 1503.

209. ASV, Arm. XXXIX, vol. 22, f. 4r.

210. CUL, Add. 4760, f. 16: copy Beltrando Costabili to Ercole d’Este, 9 Apr. 1504.

211. Giustinian, Dispacci, vol. II, pp. 78-80: 26 Apr. 1504.

212. Imprisoned in Spain, he escaped in 1506, but was killed the following year helping his brother-in-law, the King of Navarre, in an attack on a minor fortress.

213. Romeo Galli, ‘Imola’, pp. 431-2: Gianbattista Tonello to Caterina Sforza, 24 Mar. 1504.

214. Giustinian, Dispacci, vol. III, p. 155: 21 June 1504.

215. Le Glay, Négociations , LXII-LXIII.

216. Machiavelli, Legazioni, vol. II, p. 614: 10 Nov. 1503.

217. ASV, Arm. XXXIX, vol. 22, ff. 19r-20r: brief to Carlo del Carretto (nuncio in France), 7 Feb. 1504.

218. Venice still held ports in Puglia, taken as pledges for loans to Ferrantino.

219. AGonzaga, b. 856, cc. 28-9: Gianlucido Cataneo, 7 Feb. 1504.

220. CUL, Add. 4759, f. 229: Beltrando Costabili to Ercole d’Este, 20 Dec. 1503.

221. Giustinian, Dispacci, vol. III, pp. 65-7: 19 Apr. 1504.

222. ASV, Arm. XXXIX, vol. 22, ff. 57r-58r: brief to Maximilian, 14 May 1504.

223. Giustinian, Dispacci, vol. III, pp. 351-3: 31 Dec. 1504.

224. Ibid., p. 542: extract Giovanni Acciauoli, 5 May 1505.

225. AGonzaga, b. 856, cc. 28-9: Gianlucido Cataneo, 7 Feb. 1504.

226. Giustinian, Dispacci, vol. III, p. 167: 2 July 1504.

227. Ibid., p. 220: 2 Sept. 1504.

228. Cessi, Dispacci, p. XXII: Domenico Pisano, 15 Jan. 1505.

229. Sanuto, vol. V, col. 294.

230. M. Michaeli, Memorie storiche della Città di Rieti, pp. 40-3.

231. S. Marchesi, Supplemento istorico dell’antica Città di Forlì pp. 609-25.

232. They had obtained a grant from Sixtus IV in 1482 of powers that they had in fact already taken for themselves.

233. Secondo Balena, Ascoli nel Piceno, pp. 431-5; Giuseppe Fabiani, Ascoli nel Quattrocento, vol. I, pp. 146-8.

234. Giustinian, Dispacci III, vol III

235. AS Modena, Roma, b. 15, 98-IX/49: Beltrando Costabili, 17 Aug. 1504.

236. AS Florence, X, b. 73, c. 373: Giovanni Acciaroli, 14 Sept. 1504.

237. The following account of Julius’s policies to bring order to the Papal States is largely based on the volume of papal briefs, ASV, Arm. XXXIX, vol. 22, passim.

238. Ibid., ff. 328r-v.

239. Ibid., Arm. XXIX, vol. 57, f. 124v.

240. See e.g. Guicciardini, Storia d’ltalia, book VII, chapter XI.

241. D. Erasmus, The “Julius Exclusus” (trans. P. Pascal).

242. Giustinian, Dispacci, vol. III, pp. 411-12: 12 Feb. 1505.

243. Sanuto, vol. III, cols 1257, 1295; Guicciardini, Storia d’ltalia, book VII, chapter III.

244. AS Bologna, Comune, Registrum Litterarum, b. 6, ff. 233v-234r: 4 Nov. 1503.

245. Giustinian, Dispacci, vol. III, pp. 149, 192-3: 17 June, 4 Aug. 1504.

246. AGonzaga, b. 857, cc. 130-1: Antonio Magistrello, 1 Aug. 1506.

247. Sanuto, vol. VI, col. 408.

248. de’ Grassi, Le Due Spedizioni Militari di Giulio II, ed. Frati, p. 4.

249. Machiavelli joined him as a Florentine envoy just after he had set off from Rome, and stayed with him for nearly two months.

250. Machiavelli, Legazioni, vol. II, p. 954: 28 Aug. 1506, Civita Castellana.

251. de’ Grassi, ed. Frati, is the main source for these and other details of the expedition.

252. Ibid., p. 26.

253. C. Pinzi, Storia di Viterbo, vol. IV, pp. 404-7.

254. Ibid., pp. 408-11.

255. Machiavelli, Legazioni, vol. II, p. 965: 5 Sept. 1506.

256. Machiavelli, Discorsi, book I, chapter XXVII.

257. Machiavelli, Legazioni, vol. II, p. 980: 13 Sept. 1506, Perugia.

258. AGonzaga, b. 857, cc. 195-6: Federico Cribello, 14 Sept. 1506, Perugia.

259. de’ Grassi, ed. Frati, p. 42.

260. Machiavelli, Legazioni, vol. II, pp. 977-8: 12 Sept. 1506, Corciano.

261. Ibid., pp. 982, 988-9: 14 and 19 Sept. 1506.

262. de’ Grassi, ed. Frati, pp. 46-7.

263. Sanuto, vol. VI, cols 421-2; Machiavelli, Legazioni, vol. II, p. 997: 26 Sept. 1506, Urbino.

264. Ibid.

265. A ‘lance’ was a unit of six mounted men, carrying a variety of weapons.

266. de’ Grassi, ed. Frati, pp. 54-5.

267. Machiavelli, Legazioni, vol. II, pp. 1007-8: 3 Oct. 1506, Cesena.

268. Ibid., p. 1017: 10 Oct. 1506, Forlì.

269. AS Bologna, Comune, Lettere al Comune, b. 7, 41: Louis XII to Sixteen, 11 Sept. [1506], Chambéry.

270. Machiavelli, Legazioni, vol. II, pp. 1024-5: 16 Oct. 1506, Castrocaro.

271. de’ Grassi, ed. Frati, pp. 65-6.

272. Ibid., p. 65.

273. Ibid., pp. 69-70.

274. Ibid., pp. 79-80.

275. Partner, The Pope’s Men, pp. 208-9.

276. See below, Chap. 7.

277. C. L. Stinger, The Renaissance in Rome, p. 127.

278. Giustinian, Dispacci, vol. III, pp. 188-9: 29 July 1504.

279. AS Bologna, Comune, Lettere al Comune, b. 8, 90: Carlo Grato to Forty, 11 Mar. 1511, Ravenna.

280. Terrateig, Politica en Italia, vol. II, p. 139: Ferdinand to Jeronimo Vich, 17 Sept. 1510, Hita.

281. Cessi, Dispacci, p. 132: 12 Oct. 1509.

282. Ibid., p. 207: 23 Dec. 1509.

283. AS Modena, Roma, b. 19, 121-III/9: Lodovico Fabriano to Cardinal d’Este, 12 May 1505.

284. AS Bologna, Senato, Lettere, Ser. XIII, vol. 1, cc. 2, 44: Thomasino ‘Barbiero’ to Forty, 4 May 1507, 15 July 1508.

285. Rodriguez Villa, ‘Francisco de Rojas’ (1896), p. 391: Gonzalo to Rojas, 17 May 1504, Naples.

286. AGonzaga, b. 856, 81: Gianlucido Cataneo, 23 Mar. 1504.

287. Ibid., b. 859, cc. 477-8: Stazio Gadio, 16 Aug. 1511.

288. Moncallero, Epistolario di Bernardo Dovizi, p. 326: 23 Oct. 1511.

289. Ibid., p. 348: 20 Nov. 1511, Civitavecchia.

290. AGonzaga, b. 860, cc. 342-5: Stazio Gadio, 18 Dec. 1512.

291. Ibid., cc. 19-21: Folenghino, 14 June 1512.

292. Moncallero, Epistolario di Bernardo Dovizi, p. 348: 20 Nov. 1511, Civitavecchia.

293. Luzio, Isabella d’Este negli ultimi tre anni, p. 74: Alessandro Gabbioneta, 11 Apr. 1511.

294. AGonzaga, b. 859, cc. 481-2: Stazio Gadio, 22 Aug. 1511.

295. Luzio, op. cit., p. 87: Grossino, 11 Nov. 1511.

296. He recounted his connection with the della Rovere in AGonzaga, b. 856, c. 572: Marco Vigerio, 3 Mar. 1505.

297. Sanuto, vol. VI, col. 269.

298. See above, this chapter.

299. BL, Add. 8441, f. 224v. BL

300. AS Venice, X, Roma, b. 20, cc. 102-3: Girolamo Donà, 1 Mar. 1511, Ravenna.

301. See below, Chap. 9.

302. Terrateig, vol. II, p. 164: Ferdinand to Vich, 28 Jan. 1511, Guadalcanal.

303. The Sienese had ‘discovered’ that the della Rovere were originally from Siena.

304. See above, this chapter. ASVenice, X, Roma, b. 20, cc. 102-3: Girolamo Donà, 1 Mar. 1511, Ravenna.

305. Moncallero, Epistolario di Bernardo Dovizi, pp. 447, 449: 2, 3 Mar. 1512.

306. Luzio, Isabella d’Este negli ultimi tre anni, p. 208: Gabbioneta, 20 Feb. 1513.

307. AS Modena, Roma, b. 17, 98-XX/17: Beltrando Costabili to Cardinal d’Este, 26 Sept. 1508.

308. See below, Chap. 9.

309. See below, Chapters 8 and 9.

310. See below, Chap. 9.

311. Giustinian, Dispacci, vol. III, p. 443: 6 Mar. 1505.

312. AS Modena, Roma, b. 17, 98-XX/39: Beltrando Costabili, 10 Nov. 1508.

313. Sanuto, vol. VIII, cols 37, 169.

314. AS Modena, Roma, b. 14, 98-VII/103: 29 Nov. 1503.

315. Ibid., b. 19, 121-111/36: Lodovico Fabriano to Cardinal d’Este, 2 Dec. 1505; Burckhardt, Liber Notarum, pp. 498-9.

316. AGonzaga, b. 856, cc. 449-50: Lodovico Brognolo, 1 Dec. 1505.

317. Moncallero, Epistolario di Bernardo Dovizi, p. 320: 22 Oct. 1511.

318. Some historians mention two other daughters, Giulia and Clarice, but there is no reference to them in contemporary sources. If Felice had sisters, presumably they were dead by the time that Julius became pope. It is possible that Felice’s stepdaughters, Giulia and Clarice Orsini, have been taken for her sisters.

319. The son of Antonello da Sanseverino.

320. Luzio, Isabella d’Este negli ultimi tre anni, p. 60: P. Barignano to Isabella d’Este, 19 Apr. 1511, Milan.

321. Laura’s grandfather, Lodovico Migliorati, had taken the surname of his Orsini mother Elena, sister of the condottiere Napoleone Orsini.

322. See above, this chapter.

323. See above, Chap. 2.

324. See below, Chap. 10.

325. E.g. see above, Chap. 1.

326. See below, Chap 8.

327. Guicciardini, Storia d’ltalia, book IX, chapter XVIII.

328. See below, Chap. 10.

329. Luzio, ‘La reggenza d’lsabella d’Este’, p. 78: Cassola to Isabella d’Este, 21 Aug. 1510, Augsberg; id., Isabella d’Este negli ultimi tre anni, pp. 39-40.

330. Klaczko, Jules II, pp. 290, 293.

331. H. Hibberd, Michelangelo, p. 86.

332. AGonzaga, b. 860, c. 31: Folenghino, 26 June 1512.

333. D. Brown, ‘The Apollo Belvedere’, pp. 235-8.

334. AS Rome, Archivio del Collegio de’ Notai Capitolini, vol. 176, ff. 706-707v.

335. P. Verdier, ‘La Rocca d’Ostia’, p. 303.

336. II Borgo di Ostia, p. 72.

337. J. Hale, ‘The Early Development of the Bastion’, pp. 481-2.

338. ASforzesco, b. 109: Stefano Taberna to Lodovico Sforza, ? May 1494; ibid.: Taberna to Lodovico, 3 May 1494; ibid., b. 119: Taberna to Lodovico, 8 Feb. 1497.

339. Labande, Avignon, pp. 334-5.

340. ASforzesco, b. 510: Vincula to Mafeo Pirovano, 20 Mar. 1498, Chieri.

341. Ibid.: Vincula to Pirovano, 20 Mar., 20 Apr. 1498, Chieri.

342. Giustinian, Dispacci, vol. III, pp. 30-1: 22 Mar. 1504.

343. Luzio, Isabella d’Este negli ultimi tre anni, pp. 163-4: Grossino, 26 Sept. 1512.

344. AS Modena, Roma, b. 17, 98-XXI/4: Beltrando Costabili to Cardinal Ippolito d’Este, 21 Feb. 1509.

345. E.g. Stinger, The Renaissance in Rome, pp. 270-6; A. Bruschi, Bramante, pp. 160ff.

346. J. S. Ackerman, The Cortile of the Belvedere, p. 43; Weiss, ‘The Medals of Julius II’, p. 181.

347. The sixteenth-century artist who wrote invaluable lives of the Italian artists who had preceded him.

348. Vasari, Le Vite, vol. IV, pp. 79-80.

349. AS Modena, Roma, b. 16, 98-XIX/33: Beltrando Costabili, 20 Aug. 1508.

350. Stinger, The Renaissance in Rome, p. 269.

351. Bramante died in 1514.

352. BL, Add. 8441, ff. 107r-v.

353. Stinger, The Renaissance in Rome, pp. 199-200.

354. C. Hope, ‘Artists, Patrons and Advisers’, pp. 315-6.

355. R. J. Clements (ed.), Michelangelo: A Self-Portrait, p. 50.

356. E.g. Hibberd, Michelangelo, p. 105.

357. Seminar paper given by Richard Cocke to the seminar on Italian history from c. 1500 at the Institute of Historical Research, University of London, December 1991.

358. A. Condivi, Vita di Michelangelo Buonarroti, p. 76.

359. Hibberd, Michelangelo, p. 95.

360. Condivi, Vita, pp. 61-2.

361. Hibberd, Michelangelo, pp. 149, 151.

362. C. L. Frommel, ‘Die Peterskirche’, p. 88.

363. Id., ‘“Capella Iulia’”, pp. 29-30.

364. AS Modena, Roma, b. 16, 98-XV/72: Beltrando Costabili, 12 Apr. 1507.

365. Frommel, ‘“Capella Iulia’”, p. 34.

366. de’ Grassi, ed. Frati, p. 26.

367. Sanuto, vol. VIII, col. 23.

368. de’ Grassi, ed. Frati, pp. 107-8.

369. Ibid., p. 225.

370. Condivi, Vita, p. 63.

371. de’ Grassi, ed. Frati, pp. 286-7.

372. Bruschi, Bramante, p. 203.

373. E.g. C. L. Stinger, ‘Roma Triumphans’, pp. 190-1, 196.

374. Lettres du Roy Louis XII, vol. I, p. 261: Andrea de Borgo and Motta to Margaret, 21 July 1510, Blois.

375. See below, Chap. 8.

376. de’ Grassi, ed. Frati, pp. 172-4.

377. Sanuto, vol. VII, col. 64.

378. A. Denis, Charles VIII et les Italiens, p. 69.

379. AGonzaga, b. 860, c. 4: Folenghino, 11 May 1512.

380. E.g. Bruschi, Bramante, p. 12; S. von Moos, ‘The Palace as a Fortress’, p. 47.

381. See below, chapters 9 and 10.

382. See below, Chap. 8. ASModena, Roma, b. 16, 98-XV/74: Beltrando Costabili, 16 Apr. 1507; b. 19, 121-V/15: Lodovico Fabriano to Cardinal Ippolito d’Este, 22 Apr. 1507.

383. G. De Fiore, Baccio Pontelli, pp. 70, 81.

384. Weiss, ‘The Medals of Julius II’, pp. 181-2.

385. E.g. ibid., pp. 170, 171, 172, 174, 176, 178, 179.

386. See below, Chap. 9.

387. Sanuto, vol. VI, cols 499, 501-2; de’ Grassi, ed. Frati, pp. 99-101.

388. AS Bologna, Comune, Liber Partitorum, reg. 13, ff. 4r-5r.

389. Sanuto, vol. VI, col. 497.

390. AS Modena, Roma, b. 16, 98-XV/21: Beltrando Costabili, 1 Feb. 1507, Bologna.

391. Ibid., 98-XV/18: Costabili, 25 Jan. 1507, Bologna.

392. AS Bologna, Comune, Liber Partitorum, reg. 13, ff. 15v-16r.

393. Sanuto, vol. VI, col. 547.

394. AS Modena, Roma, b. 16, 98-XV/21: Beltrando Costabili, 1 Feb. 1507, Bologna.

395. Desjardins and Canestrini, vol. II, p. 191: Francesco Pandolfini, 24-8 Nov. 1506, Blois.

396. Ibid., p. 220: Pandolfini, 16 Feb. 1507, Bourges.

397. AS Modena, Roma, b. 16, 98-XVI/37: Beltrando Costabili, 16 June 1507.

398. Ibid., 98-XV/18: Costabili, 25 Jan. 1507, Bologna.

399. CUL, Add. 4761, f. 43: Costabili, 6 Feb. 1507, Bologna.

400. de’ Grassi, ed. Frati, p. 165.

401. Ibid., p. 169.

402. Ibid., pp. 172-6.

403. See below, Chap. 10, for a later attempt by the Romans to recover some of their lost powers.

404. AS Modena, Roma, b. 16, 98-XV/74: Beltrando Costabili, 16 Apr. 1507.

405. Giustinian, Dispacci, vol. III, pp. 136-7: 6 June 1504.

406. ASV, Arm. XXXIX, vol. 22, ff. 80v-81r: Julius to Cardinal Rouen, 8 June 1504.

407. AS Modena, Roma, b. 17, 98-XX/28: Beltrando Costabili, 23 Oct.1508.

408. Terrateig, vol. II, p. 46: Jeronimo Vich to Ferdinand, 28 Feb. 1508, Rome.

409. Federico Seneca, Venezia e Giulio II, pp. 185-6: Manfredo de’ Manfredi to Alfonso d’Este, 2 Mar. 1507, Bourges.

410. Desjardins and Canestrini, vol. II, p. 220: Francesco Pandolfini, 16 Feb. 1507, Bourges.

411. Giustinian, Dispacci, vol. II, pp. 444-5: 21 Feb. 1504.

412. A. Rodriguez Villa, ‘Francisco de Rojas’ (1896), pp. 380-1: Ferdinand and Isabella to Rojas, 25 Apr. 1504, Medina del Campo. See also, J. Fernandez Alonso, ‘La legación frustrada de Cosimo dei Pazzi’.

413. Terrateig, vol. II, pp. 45-6: Jeronimo Vich, 28 Feb. 1508.

414. Seneca, Venezia e Giulio II, p. 197: Roberto Acciaiuoli to X di Balìa, 5 Aug. 1508.

415. M. Brunetti, ‘Alla vigilia di Cambrai’, p. 18.

416. Wiesflecker, Kaiser Maximilian I, vol. III, p. 370, vol. IV, pp. 91-5.

417. E.g. Luzio, ‘La reggenza d’lsabella d’Este’, p. 40: Brognolo to Isabella, 18 Feb. 1510.

418. Burckhardt, Liber Notarum, p. 456.

419. See above, Chap. 6.

420. Rodriguez Villa, ‘Francisco de Rojas’ (1896), pp. 387-8.

421. I.e. those benefices held by clerics resident in Rome, working in the curia or transacting business there.

422. Le Glay, Négociations, pp. 115-16: Philibert Naturelli, 18 Apr. 1506.

423. See above, Chap. 5 and below, Chap. 9.

424. Seneca, Venezia e Giulio II, p. 182: Manfredo de’ Manfredi to Alfonso d’Este, 24 Feb. 1507, Bourges.

425. Guicciardini, Storia d’ltalia, book IX, chapter IX.

426. AS Venice, X, Roma, b. 20, c. 62: Domenico Pisano, 6 Jan. 1506(7), Bologna.

427. Sanuto, vol. VI, col. 177.

428. See note 426.

429. Ibid., c. 64: Pisano, 11 Jan. 1506(7), Bologna.

430. Cessi, Dispacci, p. xxxvii.

431. CUL, Add. 4761, ff. 43-4: Beltrando Costabili, 6 Feb. 1507, Bologna.

432. Seneca, Venezia e Giulio II, pp. 190-1: Roberto Acciaiuoli to X di Balìa, 7 Nov. 1507.

433. AGonzaga, b. 858: Lodovico di Camposampiero, 8 Apr. 1508.

434. CUL, Add. 4761, f. 173: Beltrando Costabili, 17 Apr. 1508.

435. Sanuto, vol. VII, col. 591.

436. Seneca, Venezia e Giulio II, p. 198: Roberto Acciaiuoli to X di Balìa, 23 Sept. 1508.

437. Terrateig, vol. II, p. 43: Jeronimo Vich to ?, 28 Feb. 1508.

438. Ibid., p. 47: Vich to Ferdinand, 28 Feb. 1508.

439. CUL, Add. 4761, ff. 257-8: Beltrando Costabili, 24 Oct. 1508.

440. Le Glay, Correspondance de Maximilien, vol. I, pp. 99-102: Maximilian to Margaret, 27 Oct. 1508, Breda.

441. Terrateig, vol. II, p. 63: Vich, 16 Dec. 1508.

442. Le Glay, Négociations, p. 238: terms of Treaty of Cambrai, 10 Dec. 1508.

443. Seneca, Venezia e Giulio II, p. 193: Roberto Acciaiuoli to X di Balìa, 15 July 1508.

444. CUL, Add. 4761, ff. 241-2: Beltrando Costabili, 5 Oct. 1508.

445. Ibid., ff. 251-2: Costabili, 23 Oct. 1508.

446. Seneca, Venezia e Giulio II, pp. 206-7: Acciaiuoli to X di Balìa, 24 Oct. 1508.

447. Le Glay, Négociations, pp. 237-43: terms of Treaty of Cambrai, 10 Dec. 1508.

448. Terrateig, vol. II, pp. 67-9: Ferdinand to Jeronimo Vich, 17 and 20 Feb. 1509, Villa Hoza and Castro Verde.

449. Sanuto, vol. VII, col. 760.

450. Ibid, vol. VIII, col. 30

451. Ibid., col. 37.

452. Ibid., col. 35.

453. Ibid., col. 80.

454. Ibid., cols 133-4.

455. Ibid., col 252

456. Ibid., cols 321, 326, 329-30.

457. Luzio, ‘La reggenza d’lsabella d’Este’, pp. 40-1: Cardinal Sigismondo Gonzaga to Isabella, 10 June 1509, Ancona.

458. Seneca, Venezia e Giulio II, p. 133.

459. Cessi, Dispacci, pp. 36-7: 9 July 1509.

460. Ibid., p. 73: 15 Aug. 1509.

461. Ibid., pp. 149-50: 3 Nov. 1509.

462. Ibid., pp. 155-6, 165: 5 and 16 Nov. 1509.

463. Ibid., p. 178: 26 Nov. 1509.

464. Ibid., pp. 213-14: 1 Jan. 1509(10).

465. Sanuto, vol. IX, cols 579-92.

466. Ibid., col. 535.

467. Cessi, Dispacci, p. 223: 9 Jan. 1509.

468. Sanuto, vol. X, col. 10.

469. Ibid., cols 9-13.

470. Cessi, Dispacci, pp. 33-4: 8 July 1509.

471. Ibid., p. 44: 18 July 1509.

472. Desjardins and Canestrini, vol. II, p. 389: Alessandro Nasi and Francesco Pandolfini, 3-4 July 1509, Milan.

473. Cessi, Dispacci, pp. 22-3: 5 July 1509.

474. Ibid., pp. 63-4, 76: 4 and 17 Aug. 1509.

475. Desjardins and Canestrini, vol. II, pp. 396-7: Nasi and Pandolfini, 20-1 July 1509, Milan.

476. Cessi, Dispacci, pp. 49, 53: 21 and 23 July 1509.

477. Desjardins and Canestrini, vol. II, pp. 405-6: Pandolfini, 12-15 Aug. 1509, Milan.

478. Ibid., pp. 411-12: Nasi, 11 Aug. 1509, Mortara.

479. Cessi, Dispacci, p. 79: 23 Aug. 1509.

480. He had originally been elected in 1506 - see above, Chap. 6.

481. Desjardins and Canestrini, vol. II, p. 421: Nasi, 22-3 Sept. 1509, Blois.

482. Ibid., p. 422: Nasi, 22-3 Sept. 1509, Blois.

483. Cessi, Dispacci, pp. 132-3: 12 Oct. 1509.

484. Ibid., p. 137: 25 Oct. 1509.

485. He was the son of Madeleine d’Amboise.

486. Cessi, Dispacci, p. 137: 25 Oct. 1509.

487. Ibid., pp. 156, 168, 169, 214, 226: 5 and 18 Nov. 1509, 1 and 9 Jan. 1509(10).

488. Desjardins and Canestrini, vol. II, p. 459: Nasi, 17 Jan. 1510, Blois.

489. Ibid., pp. 462- 4, 461: Nasi, 28 and 23 Jan. 1510, Blois.

490. Ibid., pp. 471, 475: Nasi, 9 and 17 Feb. 1510, Blois.

491. AS Venice, Archivio Proprio, Roma, Reg. 3, n. 21, 28: 2(?) and 10 Mar. 1510.

492. Ibid., n. 31: 15 Mar. 1510, Civitavecchia.

493. Ibid., n. 2: 21 Jan. 1509(10).

494. Ibid., n. 38: 26 Mar. 1510.

495. Ibid., n. 61: 15 May 1510.

496. Sanuto, vol. X, cols 747 ff. and vol. XI, passim to col. 440, has much information about these expeditions.

497. Ibid., vol. VI, col. 490.

498. ASModena, Roma, b. 16, 98-XV/57: Beltrando Costabili, 15 Mar. 1507, Viterbo.

499. CUL, Add. 4760, f. 137: Beltrando Costabili, 6 May 1505; AS Modena, Roma, b. 16, 98-XII/16: Costabili, 23 May 1505.

500. CUL, Add. 4761, ff. 99-100: Costabili, 27 Apr. 1507.

501. Sanuto, vol. VIII, col. 283.

502. Cessi, Dispacci, pp. 47, 55: 21 and 24 July 1509.

503. Ibid., pp. 204, 206: 13 and 23 Dec. 1509.

504. Ibid., pp. 59, 169: 29 July, 18-19 Nov. 1509.

505. AGonzaga, b. 858: Lodovico Brognolo to Isabella d’Este, 20 Mar. 1510, Rome.

506. AS Venice, Archivio Proprio, Roma, Reg. 3, n. 45: 10 Apr. 1510.

507. Ibid., n. 50: 24 Apr. 1510.

508. Ibid., n. 56: 6 May 1510.

509. Sanuto, vol. X, col. 369.

510. CUL, Add. 4762, f. 27: Beltrando Costabili, [30] May 1504.

511. Ibid., f. 49: Alfonso to Beltrando Costabili, 15 June 1510, Montagniana.

512. AS Venice, Archivio Proprio, Roma, Reg. 3, n. 101: 29 June 1510.

513. Sanuto, vol. XI, col. 108.

514. Sanuto, vol. XI, cols 213, 279.

515. That is, lands that had been held until the middle of the eighth century by the representatives in Italy of the Emperor in Constantinople; the eighth-century popes claimed to have succeeded to this position.

516. de’ Grassi, ed. Frati, p. 189.

517. AS Venice, X, Roma, b. 20, 93: Girolamo Donà, 10 Oct. 1510, Bologna.

518. Ibid., Archivio Proprio, Roma, Reg. 3, n. 57: 7 May 1510.

519. Desjardins and Canestrini, vol. II, p. 501: Alessandro Nasi, 18 May 1510, Lyons.

520. Sanuto, vol. X, col. 631.

521. Le Glay, Négociations, p. 355: Louis XII to Chaumont, 21 July 1510, Blois.

522. Machiavelli, Legazioni, vol. III, pp. 1257-8: 26 July 1510, Blois.

523. Sanuto, vol. XI, col. 551.

524. de’ Grassi, ed. Frati, p. 203.

525. Terrateig, vol. II, pp. 92-3: Ferdinand to Jeronimo Vich, 5 Dec. 1509, Leon.

526. Ibid., pp. 104-10: Ferdinand to Vich, 18 Mar. 1510, Madrid.

527. Ibid., pp. 116-18: Ferdinand to Vich, 13 May 1510, Monzón.

528. Sanuto, vol. X, col. 829; Terrateig, vol. II, pp. 132-3: Ferdinand to Vich, 5 Aug. 1510, Monzón.

529. Ibid., pp. 132-3: Ferdinand to Vich, 5 Aug. 1510, Monzón.

530. Sanuto, vol. XI, col. 550.

531. Ibid., col. 634.

532. AGonzaga, b. 859, cc. 543-4: Stazio Gadio, 29 Dec. 1511(10), Bologna.

533. Sanuto, vol. XI, col. 721 - ‘Vederò, si averò si grossi li coglioni, come ha il re di Franza.’

534. Ibid, cols 721-2.

535. Ibid, cols 743-4.

536. Ibid, col. 745.

537. Luzio, Isabella d’Este negli ultimi tre anni, p. 44.

538. Guicciardini, Storia d’ltalia, book IX, chapter XIII.

539. Sanuto, vol. XI, cols 723, 779.

540. Ibid, vol. XII, cols 97-8.

541. See above, Chap. 6.

542. Luzio, Isabella d’Este negli ultimi tre anni, p.74.

543. Lettres du Roy Louis XII, vol. II, pp. 98-9: Julius to Conservatori and Community of Modena, 29 Jan. 1511, Mirandola.

544. de’ Grassi, ed. Frati, pp. 261-2.

545. Lettres du Roy Louis XII, vol. II, pp. 160-3: Matthaeus Lang to Etienne Poncher, 16 Apr. 1511, Bologna.

546. Guicciardini, Storia d’ltalia, book IX, chapter XVI.

547. Lettres du Roy Louis XII, vol. II, pp. 163-4: Lang to Poncher, 17 Apr. 1511, Bologna.

548. AGonzaga, b. 859, c. 245: Alessandro Gabbionetta, 17 May 1511, Ravenna.

549. R. Honig, Bologna e Giulio II, p. 42.

550. AS Bologna, Comune, Registrum Litterarum, b. 8, ff. 121r-v.

551. AGonzaga, b. 1069, cc. 227-8: Francesco Maria della Rovere, 31 May 1511, Urbino.

552. Renaudet, Le Concile Gallican, p. 2: Matteo Nicolini, 28 June 1510.

553. CUL, Add. 4762, ff. 39-40: Beltrando Costabili, 7 June 1510.

554. Sanuto, vol. X, cols 564-5.

555. Ibid., cols 803-4, 829.

556. AS Modena, Roma, b. 17, 98-XXII/29: Beltrando Costabili to ?, 2 July 1510; Sanuto, vol. X, cols 747-8.

557. Ibid., col. 829.

558. Machiavelli, Legazioni, vol. III, p. 1249: 21 July 1510, Blois.

559. Ibid., p. 1347: 10 Sept. 1510, Tours.

560. Lettres du Roy Louis XII, vol. II, p. 32: Andrea del Borgo and Mota to Margaret, 19 Sept. 1510, Tours.

561. Renaudet, Le Concile Gallican, pp. 9-10: Louis to Piero Soderini and Signoria of Florence, 27 Sept. 1510, Plessis-lès-Tours.

562. Sanuto, vol. XI, col. 534.

563. Terrateig, vol. II, pp. 144-5: Ferdinand to Vich, 23 Oct. 1510, Madrid.

564. E.g. see above, Chap. 6.

565. See above, Chap. 6.

566. See above, Chap. 8.

567. Moncallero, Epistolario di Bernardo Dovizi, p. 250: Dovizi to Isabella d’Este, 3 Jan 1511, Bologna; Luzio, Isabella d’Este di fronte a Giulio II, pp. 48-9: Jacopo d’Atri, 22 Jan. 1511 [Blois?].

568. Ibid., p. 50: d’Atri, 14 Feb. 1511 [Blois?].

569. Sanuto, vol. XII, cols 250-4.

570. Renaudet, Le Concile Gallican, p. 280: Maximilian to Piero Soderini and X di Balìa, 27 Sept. 1511, ‘Hamfels’.

571. Terrateig, vol. II, pp. 148-9: Ferdinand to Vich, 2 Nov. 1510, Madrid.

572. Ibid., p. 166: Ferdinand to Vich, 16 June 1511, Seville.

573. Sanuto, vol. XII, col. 243.

574. Letters and Papers of Henry VIII, vol. I, pp. 437-8.

575. Renaudet, Le Concile Gallican, p. 82: Pierfrancesco Tosinghi, 30 July 1511.

576. Sanuto, vol. XII, col. 449.

577. AGonzaga, b. 859, c. 487: Stazio Gadio, 25 Aug 1511.

578. Sanuto, vol. XII, col. 449.

579. AGonzaga, b. 859, c. 497: Stazio Gadio, 31 Aug. 1511.

580. Ibid., cc. 481-2, c. 497: Gadio, 22 and 31 Aug. 1511.

581. Ibid., c. 488: Gadio, 25 Aug. 1511.

582. Ibid., cc. 475-6: Gadio to Isabella d’Este, 16(?) Aug. 1511.

583. Ibid., c. 504: Gadio, 8 Sept. 1511.

584. C. Gennaro, ‘La “Pax Romana” ’, pp. 53, 50.

585. AS Florence, X, b. 105, c. 379: Pierfrancesco Tosinghi, 27 Aug.1511.

586. Lettres du Roy Louis XII, vol. III, pp. 43-4: instructions of Julius to Bishop Andrew Forman, 25 Sept. 1511; pp. 53-5, Louis’s response to terms proposed by Julius (possibly not to those dated 25 Sept.).

587. Terrateig, vol. II, pp. 168-74: Ferdinand to Vich, 16 July 1511, Hontiveros (2 letters).

588. Moncallero, Epistolario di Bernardo Dovizi, p. 260: 4 Oct. 1511.

589. Sanuto, vol. XIII, cols 88-93.

590. Renaudet, Le Concile Gallican, pp. 43-4: Roberto Acciaiuoli, 1 June 1511, Grenoble.

591. Machiavelli, Legazioni, vol. III, p. 1420: Roberto Acciaiuoli, 24 Sept. 1511, Blois.

592. Renaudet, Le Concile Gallican, p. 367: Pierfrancesco Tosinghi, 13 Oct. 1511.

593. Machiavelli, Legazioni, vol. III, pp. 1434-5: Roberto Acciaiuoli, 2 Oct. 1511, Blois.

594. Terrateig, vol. II, p. 169: Ferdinand to Vich, 16 July 1511, Hontiveros.

595. Moncallero, Epistolario di Bernardo Dovizi, pp. 445, 455: 2 and 9 Mar. 1512.

596. Terrateig, vol. II, p. 189: Vich to Ferdinand, 15 Apr. 1512.

597. Sanuto, vol. XIV, col. 159.

598. See above, Chap. 9.

599. Sanuto, vol. XIV, col. 159.

600. Ibid., col. 458.

601. AGonzaga, b. 860, cc. 252-3: Stazio Gadio, 2 July 1512.

602. Sanuto, vol. XIV, col. 450.

603. Luzio, Isabella d’Este negli ultimi tre anni, p. 139: Grossino, 30 June 1512.

604. Pastor, vol. VI, p. 418.

605. AS Bologna, Comune, Registrum Litterarum, b. 8, f. 189r: Anziani et al. to Cardinal Sigismondo Gonzaga, 10 June 1512, Bologna.

606. Honig, Bologna, pp. 66-7.

607. AS Bologna, Comune, Registrum Litterarum, b. 8, ff. 191v-192r: Anziani et al. to Julius, 13 June 1512, Bologna.

608. Ibid., ff. 192v-194v.

609. See above, Chap. 7.

610. AS Bologna, Senato, Carteggio, Serie VII, vol. 1: Bolognese ambassadors to Anziani et al., 27 June 1512.

611. N. Minnich, ‘The Healing of the Pisan Schism’, pp. 96ff.

612. AGonzaga, b. 860, c. 188: Stazio Gadio, 16 Mar. 1512.

613. Pastor, vol. VI, pp. 408-9.

614. Sanuto, vol. XIV, cols 229-30.

615. Luzio, Isabella d’Este negli ultimi tre anni, pp. 219-20.

616. Alberto had a personal grudge against Alfonso, because of the execution of some relatives found guilty of conspiracy against the Este.

617. AGonzaga, b. 860, c. 162: Mario Equicola to Isabella d’Este, 9 July 1512; Luzio, Isabella d’Este negli ultimi tre anni, p. 141.

618. AGonzaga, b. 860, cc. 20-1: Folenghino, 14 June 1512.

619. Ibid., cc. 43-4: Folenghino, 29 July 1512; Luzio, Isabella d’Este negli ultimi tre anni, pp. 142-3: Alfonso to Folenghino, 19 July 1512, Marino.

620. Ibid., p. 223: Isabella to Cardinal Ippolito d’Este, 21 July 1512, Mantua; p. 144: Folenghino, 25 July 1512.

621. Sanuto, vol. XIV, cols 454-5.

622. AS Florence, X, b. 103, c. 114: Antonio Strozzi, 9 Feb. 1511(2).

623. Sanuto, vol. XIV, col. 190.

624. Ibid., col. 185.

625. AS Florence, X, b. 109, c. 339: Antonio Strozzi, 18 Apr. 1512.

626. AGonzaga, b. 860, c. 298: Stazio Gadio, 3 Sept. 1512.

627. Ibid., c. 33: Folenghino, 26 June 1512.

628. Moncallero, Epistolario di Bernardo Dovizi, p. 394: 8 Dec. 1511.

629. Ibid., p. 466: 13 Mar. 1512.

630. AGonzaga, b. 860, c. 36: Folenghino, 6 July 1512.

631. ‘L’accepto’.

632. Ibid., c. 48: Folenghino, 14 Aug. 1512.

633. José Doussinague, Fernando el Católico, p. 550: instructions of Ferdinand to Juan de Lanuza, Oct. 1512.

634. AGonzaga, b. 860, cc. 61-2: Folenghino, 28 Aug. 1512.

635. C. Santoro, Gli Sforza, p. 350.

636. AGonzaga, b. 860, c. 61: Folenghino, 28 Aug. 1512.

637. The boy’s uncle Galeazzo tried to become signore but did not have much support from the citizens.

638. Baldassare Castiglione, Lettere, vol. I, pp. 309-12: memorandum for Louis XII, Mar. 1512, Blois; pp. 313-4: Francesco Maria to Francesco Gonzaga, 17 Apr. 1512, Fossombrone.

639. Luzio, Isabella d’Este negli ultimi tre anni, p. 174: Isabella to Alfonso d’Este, 31 Oct. 1512.

640. AGonzaga, b. 860, c. 51: Folenghino, 15 Aug. 1512.

641. Wiesflecker, Maximilian I., vol. IV, p. 92.

642. Le Glay, Correspondance, vol. II, pp. 37-9: Maximilian to Margaret, 18 Sept. [1512].

643. Terrateig, vol. II, pp. 218-19: Ferdinand to Vich, 8 June 1512.

644. Lettres du Roy Louis XII, vol. III, pp. 310-17: Jean le Veau to Margaret, 23 Aug. 1512, Trent.

645. AS Bologna, Comune, Lettere al Comune, b. 5: Bolognese ambassadors to Anziani et al., 5 Nov. 1512.

646. AGonzaga, b. 860, cc. 336-7: Stazio Gadio, 27 Nov. 1512.

647. Ibid., cc. 340-1: Gadio, 7 Dec. 1512.

648. Sanuto, vol. XV, col. 411.

649. Doussinague, Fernando el Católico, pp. 565-7: Ferdinand to Vich, 11 Jan. 1513.

650. Sanuto, vol. XV, col. 492.

651. Luzio, Isabella d’Este negli ultimi tre anni, pp. 207-8: Alessandro da Gabbionetta, 20 Feb. 1513.

652. AGonzaga, b. 861: Cardinal Sigismondo Gonzaga, 20 Feb. 1513.

653. Ibid.

654. BL, Add. 8442, f. 290r.

655. Sanuto, vol. XV, col. 561.

656. Giustinian, Dispacci, vol. III, p. 444: 6 Mar. 1505.

657. AS Venice, Archivio Proprio, Roma, Reg. 3, 87: 20(?) June 1510.

658. Guicciardini, Storia d’ltalia, book IX, chapter XIII.

659. Ibid., book XI, chapter VIII.

660. Burckhardt, Liber Notarum, pp. 443, 446.

661. E.g. de’ Grassi, ed. Frati, pp. 120-1.

662. BL, Add. 8441, ff. 197v-198r, 201r.

663. AS Modena, Roma, b. 15, 98-X/38: Beltrando Costabili, 18 Oct.1504.

664. Guicciardini, Storia d’ltalia, book XI, chapter VIII.

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