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Notes

1. Ezekiel 13:19.

2. Who later became George IV.

3. Venetia Newall, The Encyclopedia of Witchcraft and Magic (London: Hamlyn Publishing, 1974), 103.

4. John Cawte, Healers of Arnhem Land (Marleston South Australia: J & B Books, 1996): 61.

5. Nigel Cawthorne, The Curious Cures of Old England (London: Piatkus Books Ltd., 2005),29

6. August 1993, 30.

7. Pliny the Elder, The Natural History of Pliny, 6 Vols. translated by J. Bostock, London 1855, XXVIII v. 277

8. Opie Iona and Tatem Moira, A Dictionary of Superstitions, Oxford Press, New York 1989, p.359

9. Cawthorne Nigel, The Curious Cures of Old England, Piatkus Books Ltd., London 2005, p. 45.

10. Pliny the Elder, Natural History - A Selection, translated by J.F. Healy, Penguin Books, London 1991, Vol. XXVIII, v. 7, p. 252.

11. In the greater district of Manchester, United Kingdom.

12. Cawthorne Nigel 2005, p. 101.

13. Pliny 1991, Vol. XXVIII, v. 49, p. 256.

14. Cawthorne Nigel 2005, p. 88.

15. ibid. p. 85.

16. Derived from: ‘scape’ an obsolete word for ‘escape’ and ‘goote’ meaning ‘goat’. This goat was conceived as embodying the spirit of Azazel, the fallen angel perpetually bound and chained in the wilderness.

17. Leviticus 16:8, 21-22.

18. Herodotus, The Histories, translated by Aubrey de Selincourt, Penguin Books, London 1972, p. 100.

19. Frazer James, The Golden Bough, Random House, New Jersey 1981, p. 212.

20. Müller Klaus, Soul of Africa, Könemann Verlagsgesellschaft, Cologne 1999, p. 61.

21. Cawthorne Nigel 2005, p. 36.

22. ibid. p. 37.

23. Farmers Weekly 9. Nov. 1973, Page 93.

24. Cawte John 1996, p. 89.

25. Murray Grace, Ancient Rites and Ceremonies, Random House, London 1996, p. 15.

26. Budge Wallis, The Egyptian Book of the Dead, Egyptian Text Transliteration and Translation, Dover Publications, New York 1967, p. 198.

27. Feather Robert, The Copper Scroll Decoded, Harper Collins, London, 2000, p. 61.

28. Exodus 3:14.

29. Pliny 1991, XXVIII, v. 18, p. 253.

30. Taplin G. (editor), The Folklore, Manners, Customs and Languages of the South Australian Aborigines, Government Press, Adelaide 1879, p. 28.

31. Budge Wallis 1967, p. 198.

32. Pliny 1991, Vol.VII, v. 37, p.81.

33. Sullivan Brenda, Africa through the Mists of Time, Covos Day Books, Johannesburg 2002, p. 12.

34. Mooney James, The Ghost-Dance Religion and the Sioux Outbreak of 1890, In: Annual Report of the Bureau of American Ethnology, XIV, 2, Washington 1896, p. 721.

35. Cawte John 1996, p. 43.

36. This is clearly indicated in A Permeability of Boundaries? New approaches to the Archaeology of Art, Religion and Folklore, a paper published by Dinah Eastop in 2001.

37. Pliny 1991, Vol. XXVIII, v. 19, p. 253.

38. 2 Ibid., vol. 30, v. 5–6, 269.

39. Ibid., vol. 28, v. 13, 252.

40. Pliny the Elder, The Natural History of Pliny, 6 vols., vol. 30, v. 22, J. Bostock, trans. (London: Henry G. Bohn, 1855).

41. Herodotus, The Histories, Aubrey de Selincourt, trans. (London: Penguin Books, 1972), 170.

42. Book of Proverbs 23:6.

43. Frederick Elworthy, The Evil Eye, Bell (New York: Publishing Company, 1989), 219.

44. Pliny the Elder, The Natural History of Pliny, 6 vols., vol. 25, v. 67, J. Bostock, trans. (London: Henry G. Bohn, 1855).

45. Jacob Grimm, Teutonic Mythology, vol. 4 (London: George Bell and Sons, 1883), 1812.

46. Edwin Radford, Encyclopaedia of Superstitions (New York: The Philosophical Library, 1949), 159.

47. Edwin Radford, Encyclopaedia of Superstitions (New York: The Philosophical Library, 1949), 99.

48. Frederick Elworthy, The Evil Eye, Bell (New York: Publishing Company, 1989), 185.

49. Book of Ruth 4:7.

50. Joshua 5:15.

51. Deuteronomy 25:9.

52. Howard Reid, In Search of the Immortals (London: Headline Publishing, 1999), 242–243.

53. Matthew 5:13.

54. Formally in 753 BCE by the legendary ruler Romulus.

55. Numbers 18:19 and II Chronicles 13:5.

56. Jacob Grimm, Teutonic Mythology, vol. 4 (London: George Bell and Sons, 1883), 1784.

57. Iona Opie and Tatem Moira, A Dictionary of Superstitions (New York: Oxford Press, 1989),341.

58. Jacob Grimm, Teutonic Mythology, vol. 4 (London: George Bell and Sons, 1883), 1800.

59. Harold Bayley, The Lost Language of Symbolism (London: Bracken Books, 1996), 129, 126.

60. Nigel Cawthorne, The Curious Cures of Old England (London: Piatkus Books Ltd., 2005),98.

61. Brenda Sullivan, Africa through the Mists of Time (Johannesburg: Covos Day Books, 2002), 68.

62. Iona Opie and Tatem Moira, A Dictionary of Superstitions (New York: Oxford Press, 1989), 79.

63. William Shakespeare, Henry IV, Part II, Act I, Scene I, in Complete Works (London: Rex Library Co., 1974).

64. Exodus 7:11.

65. Daniel 2:2.

66. Micah 3:5.

67. Deuteronomy 18:10-12.

Exodus 22:18.

68. I Samuel 28:7.

69. ibid.

70. II Kings 9:22.

71. Nahum 3:4.

72. Galatians 3:1

73. Acts of the Apostles 8: 9-11; Galatians 5:20.

74. Circa ninth to fifteenth century.

75. David Christie-Murray, A History of Heresy (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1976), 109.

76. Wolf’s bane is also known as aconite.

77. Linda Caporael. ‘Ergotism: The Satan Loosed in Salem?’ In: Science, Vol 192, April 1976.

78. Matossian, Mary. Poisons of the Past: Moulds, Epidemics and History. New York: Yale University Press, 1991.

79. Venetia Newall, The Encyclopedia of Witchcraft and Magic (London: Hamlyn Publishing, 1974),174.

80. Venetia Newall, The Encyclopedia of Witchcraft and Magic (London: Hamlyn Publishing, 1974),179.

81. Elisabeth Abbot, A History of Celibacy (New York: Scribner, 2000), 54.

82. Ibid.,49.

83. Ibid., 66.

84. Philip Ball. The Devil’s Doctor – Paracelsus and the World of Renaissance, Magic and Science, Farrar, Straus and Giroux, New York 2006, 312.

85. William Shakespeare, Macbeth, Act IV, Scene I, in Complete Works (London: Rex Library Co., 1974).

86. Venetia Newall, The Encyclopedia of Witchcraft and Magic (London: Hamlyn Publishing, 1974), 47.

87. Ibid., 46.

88. William Shakespeare, Merry Wives of Windsor, Act III, Scene II, in Complete Works (London: Rex Library Co., 1974).

89. Matthew 25:32–41.

90. Psalm 132:17 and Jeremiah 48:25.

91. Herodotus, The Histories, Aubrey de Selincourt, trans. (London: Penguin Books, 1972), 114.

92. Walter Burkert, Creation of the Sacred (London: Harvard University Press, 1999), 159.

93. Howard Reid, In Search of the Immortals (London: Headline Publishing, 1999), 90.

94. A reverence for cauldrons and chalices seems to be universal. Cauldrons and chalices, as holders of liquids in a confined space, represented miniature ponds and wells. Used to transfer nourishment in the form of food and drink, as well as for ritual practices, the powers of these containers could be heightened by fashioning them from precious metals.

95. Howard Reid, In Search of the Immortals (London: Headline Publishing, 1999), 90.

96. Phillip Vandenberg, The Mystery of the Oracles (New York: Macmillan Publishing, 1982), 226.

97. The most famous of the numerous oracles throughout the ancient world were the Oracle of Apollo at Delphi, the Oracle of Zeus in Dodona, the Oracle of Amun at the Oasis of Siwah in Egypt (consulted by Alexander the Great), the Oracle of Jupiter in Crete, the Oracle of Minerva in Mycenea, the Oracle of Venus at Paphos in Cyprus, the Oracle of Aesculapius at Epidaurus, and the Oracles of Claros and Didyma in modern-day Turkey.

98. Phillip Vandenberg, The Mystery of the Oracles (New York: Macmillan Publishing, 1982), 134.

99. Tacitus, Annals, 2.54.

100. Brenda Sullivan, Africa through the Mists of Time (Johannesburg: Covos Day Books, 2002), 198.

101. Pliny the Elder, Natural History — A Selection, vol. 36, v. 193, J. F. Healy, trans. (London: Penguin Books, 1991), 362.

102. Dante, Paradiso, Canto XXI.

103. Book of Judges 8:21.

104. William Shakespeare, Othello, Act V, Scene II, in Complete Works (London: Rex Library Co., 1974).

105. Shakespeare alludes to this particular superstition in Richard II: Act II, Scene IV.

106. Arabic ka’bah, meaning a square house.

107. Wolfram von Eschenbach, Parzival, Wilhelm Stapel, trans. (München: Müller Verlag, 1973), 241.

108. Circa 673–735 CE.

109. Andrew Dickson, White. A History of the Warfare of Science with Theology in Christendom, vol. 1 (New York: Appleton and Company, 1898),381.

110. J. L. Dreyer, A History of the Planetary Systems from Thales to Kepler (New York: Cosimo, 2007), 12–13.

111. Phillip Vandenberg, The Mystery of the Oracles (New York: Macmillan Publishing, 1982), 223.

112. William Shakespeare, Othello, Act V, Scene II, in Complete Works (London: Rex Library Co., 1974).

113. William Shakespeare, King John, Act III, Scene III, in Complete Works (London: Rex Library Co., 1974).

114. Papyrus No. 10184.

115. Dietz-Rüdiger Moser, Glaube im Abseits—Beiträge zur Erforschung des Aberglaubens (Darmstadt: Wissenschaftliche Buchgesellschaft, 1992), 155.

116. In ancient times, the ancient Greeks dated everything from the Olympic Register, a traditional list of victors in the Olympic Games starting in 776 BCE. The Romans, on the other hand, originally counted time from the founding of their city in 754 BCE. Now, there remain various religiously based calendars that are different from the Gregorian calendar. Hence, diverse groups celebrate New Year on differing dates. As Eastern Orthodox Churches (Romanian and Greek Orthodox excluded) continue to use the Julian calendar, which is currently thirteen days later than the Gregorian calendar, their New Year celebrations take place on January 14. The Islamic world celebrates New Year on the first day of the first month in the Islamic calendar — calculated from July 16, 622 CE, the date of the Hegira, when Mohammed led his followers from Mecca to Medina to escape assassination. The Hindu calendar is based on the start of the Saka Era 78 CE. Hindus observe the joyful festival of Divali, ushering in the New Year on October 19, historically commemorating the coronation of Lord Rama as king of Ayodhya. The Jewish moon-based calendar is based on the belief that the universe was created in 3761 BCE. The Jewish New Year celebration called Rosh Hashanah takes place on the first and second days of Tishri, the seventh month of the Jewish year. The Buddhist year starts in 596 BCE in early December with the celebration of the enlightenment of Buddha.

117. Jeremiah 44:19.

118. The Days of the Dead.

119. Luke 2:8.

120. G. R. M. Mead, Thrice Greatest Hermes, vol. 3 (London: John Watkins Publishing, 1964), 99.

121. Harold Bayley, The Lost Language of Symbolism, vol. 1 (London: Bracken Books, 1996), 145.

122. Emperor Constantine, realising the potential value of a unifying state religion, at first flirted with the idea that the supreme god should be Sol and, therefore, had coins issued depicting this deity and had Sol declared as patron of his dynasty. However, it soon became obvious to him that the Christian Church had a structure and hierarchy that was far superior to the pagan faith, which is why he decided to promote the Christian religion for his own purposes, although he only embraced the faith on his deathbed, when he chose to be baptised. An example of how different religions coexisted during the early centuries of Christianity is a mosaic from the mausuleum of the Julii underneath St. Peter’s in Rome. Jesus is depicted as Sol Invictus, driving the horses of the sun-god’s chariot.

123. Marvin, Meyer, The Ancient Mysteries: A Sourcebook (Harper Collins: San Francisco, 1987), 8.

124. Myrna, in modern-day Turkey.

125. Clement Miles, Christmas in Ritual and Tradition—Christian and Pagan (New York: Frederick A. Stokes Company, 1912), 268.

126. William Shakespeare, Titus Andronicus, Act II, Scene III, in Complete Works (London: Rex Library Co., 1974).

127. Joseph Campbell, The Masks of God — Primitive Mythology (New York: Penguin Books, 1987), 117.

128. Sain from old English segnian, to sign with the cross.

129. Cassandra Eason, Ancient Wisdom (London: Robinson Publishing, 1997), 192.

130. William Shakespeare, Henry VIII, Act V, Scene II, in Complete Works (London: Rex Library Co., 1974).

131. A. E. Anton, Handfasting in Scotland’ Scottish Historical Review, vol. 37, no. 124 (1958): 91.

132. George Ryley Scott, Customs of Sex and Marriage (London: Senate Publishing, 1995), 68.

133. I Kings 11:1–3; II Samuel 16:15.

134. Mark Searle & Kenneth Stevenson, Documents of the Marriage Liturgy (Collegeville, MN: Liturgical Press, 1992),14.

135. A. E. Anton, ‘Handfasting in Scotland,’ Scottish Historical Review, vol. 37, no. 124 (1958): 99.

136. Christopher Brooke, The Medieval Idea of Marriage (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1989), 250.

137. Geoffrey, Chaucer. The Wife of Bath. In: The Canterbury Tales, Prologue, (Penguin Classics 1975)Line 460.

138. Grace Murray, Ancient Rites and Ceremonies (London: Random House, 1996), 39.

139. In: William D’Avenant’s stage play The Rivals (1664)

140. Pliny the Elder, Natural History — A Selection, vol. 33, v. 32, J. F. Healy, trans. (London: Penguin Books, 1991).

141. Genesis 38:18.

142. Edwin Radford, Encyclopaedia of Superstitions (New York: The Philosophical Library, 1949), 254.

143. Charles Dickens, David Copperfield in Complete Works, Centennial Edition, vol 2. (Geneva: Heron Books), 10.

144. John Cawte, Healers of Arnhem Land (Marleston, South Australia: J & B Books, 1996): 44.

145. Edwin Radford, Encyclopaedia of Superstitions (New York: The Philosophical Library, 1949), 43.

146. Shakespeare refers to it in Richard II, Act II, Scene I.

147. Shakespeare, Richard III, Act III, Scene IV.

148. Genesis 49:1, 33.

149. Leviticus 19:27–28; Deuteronomy 14:1.

150. Pliny the Elder, Natural History — A Selection, vol. 28, v. 22, J. F. Healy, trans. (London: Penguin Books, 1991).

151. Wallis Budge, trans., The Egyptian Book of the Dead, Egyptian Text Transliteration and Translation (New York: Dover Publications, [1836] 1967), xcii.

152. Venetia Newall, The Encyclopedia of Witchcraft and Magic (London: Hamlyn Publishing, 1974), 52.

153. Numbers 19: 11-12

154. Iona Opie and Tatem Moira, A Dictionary of Superstitions (New York: Oxford Press, 1989), 341.

155. Deuteronomy 28:26.

156. Isaiah 26:19.

157. Hilderic Friend, Flowers and Flower Lore (London: Swan Publishers, 1892), 566.

158. Pliny the Elder, Natural History — A Selection, vol. 16, v. 50, J. F. Healy, trans. (London: Penguin Books, 1991).

159. Shakespeare, Richard II, Act III, Scene II.

160. Mafart B., Pelletier J., Fixot M., Post-mortem Ablation of the Heart: A Medieval Funerary Practice, In: International Journal of Osteo-Archaeology Vol. 14, 2004, pp. 67-73.

161. Hans Bächtold-Stäubli, Handwörterbuch des Deutschen Aberglaubens, vol. 3 (Berlin: de Gruyter Publishers, 1987), 1799.

162. Mafart B., Pelletier J., Fixot M., Post-mortem Ablation of the Heart: A Medieval Funerary Practice, In: International Journal of Osteo-Archaeology Vol. 14, 2004, pp. 67-73.

163. Hans Bächtold-Stäubli, Handwörterbuch des Deutschen Aberglaubens, vol. 3 (Berlin: de Gruyter Publishers, 1987), 1801.

164. Wallis Budge, trans., The Egyptian Book of the Dead, Egyptian Text Transliteration and Translation (New York: Dover Publications, [1836] 1967), lxvii.

165. Ibid., 115.

166. Ibid., 117.

167. Pliny the Elder, The Natural History of Pliny, 6 vols., vol. 28, v. 67, J. Bostock, trans. (London: Henry G. Bohn, 1855), 391.

168. Ibid., 69.

169. Numbers 14:9.

170. In modern society, the word taboo has come to mean the prohibition of something by social convention, a breach in social etiquette or custom. Originally, however, a taboo implied sacredness and supernatural character. A Polynesian word, taboo refers to a prohibition against touching, taking, or using something because of the sanctity with which it is charged. It means much more than caution, respect, or reverence and is normally used in approaching something sacred. The object or person is believed imbued with a mystic essence, which is considered infectious and dangerous. Priests and priest-chiefs in native societies, believed to have descended from the gods, were often considered taboo.

171. Job 7:1, 2.

172. Exodus 24:6–8.

173. Pliny the Elder, Natural History — A Selection, vol. 26, v. 8, J. F. Healy, trans. (London: Penguin Books, 1991), 245.

174. Hans Bächtold-Stäubli, Handwörterbuch des Deutschen Aberglaubens, vol. 1 (Berlin: de Gruyter Publishers, 1987), 1437.

175. Iona Opie and Tatem Moira, A Dictionary of Superstitions (New York: Oxford Press, 1989), 189.

176. Jacob Grimm, Teutonic Mythology, vol. 4 (London: George Bell and Sons, 1883), 1824.

177. Leviticus 7:26–27; Deuteronomy 12:16, 12:23.

178. William Shakespeare, Richard III, Act I, Scene II, in Complete Works (London: Rex Library Co., 1974), 585.

179. Edwin Radford, Encyclopaedia of Superstitions (New York: The Philosophical Library, 1949), 189.

180. Leviticus 12:2–5.

181. Jacob Grimm, Teutonic Mythology, vol. 4 (London: George Bell and Sons, 1883), 1778:35.

182. Pliny the Elder, Natural History — A Selection, vol. 28, v. 38, J. F. Healy, trans. (London: Penguin Books, 1991), 255.

183. Brenda Sullivan, Africa through the Mists of Time (Johannesburg: Covos Day Books, 2002), 136.

184. Pliny the Elder, The Natural History of Pliny, 6 vols., vol. 28, v. 88, J. Bostock, trans. (London: Henry G. Bohn, 1855).

185. Mark 7:32–34.

186. Brenda Sullivan, Africa through the Mists of Time (Johannesburg: Covos Day Books, 2002), 151.

187. Pliny the Elder, Natural History — A Selection, vol. 28, v. 38, J. F. Healy, trans. (London: Penguin Books, 1991), 255.

188. Brenda Sullivan, Africa through the Mists of Time (Johannesburg: Covos Day Books, 2002), 136.

189. Pliny the Elder, The Natural History of Pliny, 6 vols., vol. 28, v. 88, J. Bostock, trans. (London: Henry G. Bohn, 1855).

190. Mark 7:32–34.

191. Brenda Sullivan, Africa through the Mists of Time (Johannesburg: Covos Day Books, 2002), 151.

192. I Samuel 10:19–21.

193. Judges 20:9–10.

194. Luke 1:8–10.

195. John 19:24.

196. Jacob Grimm, Teutonic Mythology, vol. 4 (London: George Bell and Sons, 1883), 1785.

197. Ibid., 1824.

198. Corinthians I 11:14.

199. Judges 16:19.

200. Tacitus, Germania (Reclam: Stuttgart, 1975), 45.

201. Pliny the Elder, Natural History — A Selection, vol. 8, v. 184, J. F. Healy, trans. (London: Penguin Books, 1991), 123.

202. Jeremiah 48:37, 38.

203. Job 1:20.

204. James, Frazer, The Golden Bough (New Jersey: Random House, 1981), 197.

205. John Cawte, Healers of Arnhem Land (Marleston, South Australia: J & B Books, 1996): 24.

206. Jacob Grimm, Teutonic Mythology, vol. 4 (London: George Bell and Sons, 1883), 1822.

207. Iona Opie and Tatem Moira, A Dictionary of Superstitions (New York: Oxford Press, 1989), 325.

208. William Shakespeare, Venus and Adonis in Complete Works (London: Rex Library Co., 1974), 1046.

209. William Shakespeare, Macbeth, Act II, Scene II  in Complete Works (London: Rex Library Co., 1974), 828.

210. Pliny the Elder, Natural History — A Selection, vol. 10, v. 46, J. F. Healy, trans. (London: Penguin Books, 1991), 143.

211. William Shakespeare, Hamlet,, Act I, Scene II  in Complete Works (London: Rex Library Co., 1974), 848.

212. Pliny the Elder, Natural History — A Selection, vol. 10, v. 49, J. F. Healy, trans. (London: Penguin Books, 1991), 144.

213. Matthew 10:16.

214. Genesis 3:1.

215. Brenda Sullivan, Africa through the Mists of Time (Johannesburg: Covos Day Books, 2002), 193.

216. Ibid., 199.

217. Numbers 21:9.

218. Hans Bächtold-Stäubli, Handwörterbuch des Deutschen Aberglaubens, vol. 7 (Berlin: de Gruyter Publishers, 1987), 1165.

219. Venetia Newall, The Encyclopedia of Witchcraft and Magic (London: Hamlyn Publishing, 1974), 48.

220. Modern Tell Basta.

221. Herodotus, The Histories, Aubrey de Selincourt, trans. (London: Penguin Books, 1972), 110.

222. Pliny the Elder, Natural History — A Selection, vol. 16, v. 5, J. F. Healy, trans. (London: Penguin Books, 1991), 206.

223. J. Philpot, The Sacred Tree—The Tree in Religion and Myth (London: Macmillan & Co., 1897), 21.

224. James Frazer, The Golden Bough (New Jersey: Random House, 1981), 61.

225. Peter Tompkins, The Secret Life of Plants (New York: Avon Books, 1973), 77.

226. Pliny the Elder, Natural History — A Selection, vol. 16, v. 7, J. F. Healy, trans. (London: Penguin Books, 1991), 207.

227. J. C. Cooper, ed. Brewer’s Myth and Legend (London: Cassell Publishers Ltd., 1992), 201.

228. Virgil. Eclogues VIII, 75.

229. Pliny the Elder, Natural History — A Selection, vol. 28, v. 22, 23, J. F. Healy, trans. (London: Penguin Books, 1991), 254.

230. William Shakespeare, The Merry Wives of Windsor, Act V, Scene I in Complete Works (London: Rex Library Co., 1974), 75.

231. Stuart Holroyd, Magic, Words and Numbers (London: Aldus Books, 1975), 37.

232. Revelation 3:1, 4:5, 5:6.

233. Genesis 41:29, 41:30, Leviticus 25:8, Ezekiel 39:9

234. A Germanic deity identified with Mars.

235. Genesis 21:28.

236. Exodus 29:35.

237. Ibid., 29:37.

238. Ezekiel 43:25.

239. Numbers 19:11.

240. Exodus 7:25.

241. Jacob Grimm, Teutonic Mythology, vol. 4 (London: George Bell and Sons, 1883), 1826.

242. Exodus 24:18.

243. Numbers 8:13.

244. I Kings 19: 8.

245. Genesis 7:4.

246. Ibid., 8:6.

247. Numbers 13:25.

248. Judges 13:1.

249. I Samuel 4:18.

250. I Kings 2:11.

251. Ibid., 11:42; Judges 8:28.

252. Deuteronomy 25:3.

253. Matthew 4:2.

254. Exodus 20:25.

255. I Kings 6:7.

256. Louis Ginzberg, Legends of the Jews, vol. 1 (Philadelphia: Publication Society of America, 1909), 34.

257. Ibid., 334.

258. Exodus 20:25; I Kings 6:7.

259. Pliny the Elder, The Natural History of Pliny, 6 vols., vol. 34, v. 201–211, J. Bostock, trans. (London: Henry G. Bohn, 1855).

260. Ibid., v. 41–42.

261. Genesis 44:5.

262. I Kings 6:20–7:51.

263. Exodus 32:19.

264. Iona Opie and Tatem Moira, A Dictionary of Superstitions (New York: Oxford Press, 1989), 175.

265. Ezekiel 1:26.

266. Revelations 21:11.

267. Ibid., 21:18–21.

268. Louis Ginzberg, Legends of the Jews, vol. 1 (Philadelphia: Publication Society of America, 1909),  162.

269. Louis Ginzberg, Legends of the Jews, vol. 1 (Philadelphia: Publication Society of America, 1909), 298.

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