From the American Revolution to the Spanish-American War

What African Seminole led raids during the first and second Seminole Wars?

John Caesar (c. 1750–1837) led raids in the First Seminole War in 1817 and convinced runaway slaves and free blacks to join his efforts. He was successful again in 1835 during the Second Seminole War. The men burned homes, wrecked mills, and confiscated livestock and corn. In 1836 Caesar led successful raids of sugar plantations outside St. Augustine, Florida, and as a result freed slaves who were on the plantations. Native Seminoles, escaped slaves, and African Seminoles aided in the raids again. His leadership in recruiting slaves from plantations compelled the U.S. military to enter into negotiations with African Seminoles and remove them from enslavement on the plantations. While attempting to steal horses from a plantation, on January 17, 1837, Caesar and his men were discovered and attacked. Three warriors and Caesar were killed. Caesar became well known in Florida as an outstanding and brave military leader.


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