Lincoln University (Pennsylvania) and Wilberforce University (Ohio), established in 1854, are the oldest historically black colleges established in America. Unlike Cheyney State, which had its origin in 1832, these institutions are still in their original locations and were the first to indicate their aim to award baccalaureate degrees and develop fully into degree-granting institutions. Lincoln University, the outgrowth of the Ashmun Institute, was incorporated January 1, 1854, and opened its doors to young black men on August 30, 1856. Wilberforce University was incorporated in 1856 and awarded its first baccalaureate degree in 1857. In 1862, Wilberforce came under black control, making it the oldest college controlled by blacks.