In 1988 Lenora Fulani (1950–) was the first black American woman to qualify for federal matching funds in a presidential election and also the first African American (and woman) to appear on the presidential ballot in all fifty states. She was also the only black woman Marxist psychologist to run for president. A social psychologist, Fulani was running on the National Alliance Party ticket. She was on the ballot in forty-five states in 1992. Born Lenora Branch in Chester, Pennsylvania, she received her bachelor’s degree from Hofstra University, master’s degree from Teachers College, Columbia University, and her doctoral degree from City University of New York, Graduate Center.