When the Great Depression began in the 1930s, many blamed President Herbert Hoover for causing it. Although two-thirds of black voters still favored Hoover at the ballot box, Franklin D. Roosevelt won the election. Roosevelt’s implementation of New Deal programs provided some relief for blacks as well as whites; however, blacks were disproportionally represented on relief rolls and in poverty. Federal initiatives led to jobs for blacks, offered training and educational programs, and gave blacks a voice in policy-making. Roosevelt’s second run for office in 1936 won the support of African Americans, who switched parties in his favor.