Henry Highland Garnet (1815–1882) was a leading abolitionist, an advocate of political action as a necessary alternative to ill treatment of African Americans, and an outspoken orator who sought remedies for the ill treatment that they received. Alexander Crummell (1819–1898), black nationalist, promoted emigration of blacks from the United States and became a lecturer for the American Colonization Society. James Theodore Holly (1829–1911) of the Protestant Episcopal Church strove to get support for the emigration of black people to Haiti, remained involved in fights for black rights, and believed that the only way to receive equality was for black people to separate themselves from whites. Francis J. Grimké (1852–1937) of the Fifteenth Street Presbyterian Church in Washington, D.C., was a leader among African Americans in Washington, D.C., and used his position to fight racism both within his denomination and in society at large. Reverdy C. Ransom (1861–1959) was a minister in the African Methodist Episcopal Church who had militant views about civil rights.