On October 25, 1997, over 300,000 African-American women from across the nation met in Philadelphia and held the first Million Woman March. The purpose was to strengthen the bonds between African-American women from all elements of society and to bring about positive change. They came to show solidarity and to address various issues confronting them, such as women in prison, independent schools for African-American women, crime, teen pregnancy, and the need to increase the number of black women in business and politics. Modeled after the Million Man March, women from all walks of life organized the campaign. Cofounders were retired Chicago police officers Phile Chionesu and Cheryl Thomas-Porter. Estimates are that 2.5 million people participated in various activities associated with the three-day march.