To become professionals, emerging African-American artists of the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries were trained by white artists and traveled to Europe to study and receive validation, since their cultural roots were not recognized or appreciated in America. They also simulated European artistic styles. Although their works received some popular acceptance, racism kept them out of the mainstream. Most continued to work in the United States in spite of their status, and some overcame immense obstacles and won recognition for their work. These included Edward Mitchell Bannister, Robert Scott Duncanson, Meta Warrick Fuller, Joshua Johnston, Edmonia Lewis, and Henry Ossawa Tanner.