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Skeletal System

Joints

What are the four categories of possible movements by synovial joints?

The four basic categories of movements are gliding, angular movements, rotation, and special movements. Each of these groups is defined by the form of motion, the direction of movement, or the relationship of one body part to another during movement.

Gliding movements are generally simple back-and-forth or side-to-side movements. Angular movements include flexion, extension, abduction, adduction, and circumduction. In each of these movements there is an increase or decrease in the angle between articulating bones. In rotational movements a bone revolves around its own longitudinal axis. Special movements occur only at certain joints. These movements include elevation, depression, protraction, retraction inversion, eversion, dorsiflexion, plantar flexion, supination, and pronation.



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