Urinary System


What are the symptoms of kidney failure?

Symptoms of kidney failure include excess fluid buildup due to inability of the kidneys to produce enough urine. The resulting excess fluid increases blood pressure, leading to hypertension. An indirect symptom of kidney failure is anemia due to the decreased production of erythropoietin by the kidneys. Erythropoietin controls the rate of maturation of red blood cells. Without adequate red blood cells, a person will become tired and short of breath.

Dialysis is a treatment that uses artificial membranes to filter out toxins from the blood when a person’s kidneys have failed. (From Premkumar K. The Massage Connection Anatomy and Physiology. Baltimore: Lippincott, Williams & Wilkins, 2004.)

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