Endocrine System


When was human insulin first synthesized?

Human insulin was first synthesized in 1978 by Arthur Riggs and Keiichi Itakura (1942-) using E. coli bacteria with recombinant DNA technology. The first human insulin, Humulin, was not marketed until 1982. Although called “human insulin,” most insulin available today is synthetic insulin. It is almost identical to the insulin produced by the human pancreas.


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