Cellular Basics

Prokaryotic and Eukaryotic Cells

How do the cells of bacteria, plants, and animals compare to each other?

Numerous differences exist between the cells of bacteria, plants, and animals—all of which make these organisms unique. The following table lists some of those major differences and even a few similarities:

 

 

Bacterium (Prokaryote)

Plant (Eukaryote)

Animal (Eukaryote)

Exterior structures

 

 

 

 

Cell wall

Present (protein polysaccharide)

Present (cellulose)

Absent

 

Plasma membrane

Present

Present

Present

Interior structures

 

 

 

 

Endoplasmic reticulum

Absent

Usually present

Usually present

 

Ribosome

Present

Present

Present

 

Microtubule

Absent

Present

Present

 

Centriole

Absent

Absent

Present

 

Golgi apparatus

Absent

Present

Present

 

Cytoskeleton

Absent

Present

Present

Other organelles

 

 

 

 

Nucleus

Absent

Present

Present

 

Mitochondrion

Absent

Present

Present

 

Chloroplast

Absent

Present

Absent

 

Nucleolus

Absent

Present

Present

 

Chromosome

A single circle of naked DNA

Multiple; DNA-protein complex

Multiple; DNA-protein complex

 

Lysosome

Absent

Absent

Present

 

Vacuole

Absent

Usually a large single vacuole

Absent



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