During the Nazi era in Germany, 1933–1945, the “science” of geopolitics was utilized to support Germany’s concept of Lebensraum, or living space. The Nazi concept of Lebensraum was based on the idea that there was a racial hierarchy that allowed “superior” races to conquer “inferior” races. Adolf Hitler used this warped sense of geopolitics to invade Czechoslovakia, Poland, and the Soviet Union. For example, Germany claimed that the ethnic Germans living in the Sudetenland of Czechoslovakia should be included within the German fatherland.
At its height, the British Empire had colonies on every continent except Antarctica (darkened areas of this old illustration indicate Great Britain and its colonies).