The elaborate palace, built east of the city of Granada, in southern Spain, was built by Moors, Muslim North Africans who occupied the Iberian Peninsula (Spain and Portugal) for hundreds of years during the Middle Ages (500–1350). The fortified structure, built between 1238 and 1354, is a monument of Islamic architecture in the Western world. Its name is derived from an Arabic word meaning “red”; the highly ornamental palace, with its decorative columns, walls, and ceilings, was constructed of red brick. Perched on a hilltop, the Alhambra was the last stronghold of the Moors in Spain. In 1492 the palace was captured by forces of Spain’s King Ferdinand (1452–1516) and Queen Isabella (1451–1504).
Upon completion in 1883 the Brooklyn Bridge was considered a feat of modern engineering. (Photo, c. 1900.)