Math Basics

Basic Arithmetic

Are there more advanced concepts in arithmetic?

Yes, arithmetic can even be more advanced than the ideas mentioned above. For example, higher arithmetic is the archaic term for number theory, which is the study of the properties of integers, or whole numbers (0, ± 1, ± 2…). It can include simpler arithmetic concepts to more complex, such as diophantine equations (for more information about these equations, see “Algebra”), prime numbers (see below), and functions such as the Riemann hypothesis (for more about Friedrich Bernhard Riemann, see “History of Mathematics” and “Geometry and Trigonometry”).

There are other more advanced ideas in arithmetic, too. For example, modular arithmetic is known as the arithmetic of congruences (see below). The model theory discusses the existence of “non-standard” models of arithmetic. And floating-point arithmetic is performed on real numbers by computers or other automated devices.


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