The Lotka-Volterra Interspecific Competition Logistic Equations are concerned with the predator-prey relationships between species in the environment, and are based on differential equations (for more on differential equations, see “Mathematical Analysis”). Such predator-prey theories were developed independently by then-Austrian (now Ukrainian) chemist, demographer, ecologist, and mathematician Alfred James Lotka (1880–1949) and Italian mathematician Vito Volterra (1860–1940) in 1925. They refer to *interspecific competition,* or the competition between two or more species for some limiting resource, such as food, nutrients, space, mates, nesting sites, or anything in which the demand is greater than the supply.