The foundations of modern architecture began with mathematics. Mathematical planning goes into creating almost every working, free-standing structure, from the smallest monument to the tallest buildings and bridges. For example, in order to build a structure, the area where the building will be erected must be measured to see if it will fit (measurements and surveys); then the building plans need to be drawn up in scale drawings made proportionally smaller to the structure’s real size (for more information, see below); and the amount of building material must be estimated (mathematics to figure out the budget). Finally, the actual structure must be built to specifications so the building will stand without collapsing (geometry and measurement).