Math in the Physical Sciences

Modern Physics and Mathematics

What is the Pauli’s exclusion principle?

Quantum theory also relies on the Pauli exclusion principle. This principle, developed by Austrian-born Swiss physicist Wolfgang Pauli (1900–1958) in 1925, states that two particles of a certain class—called femions, and otherwise known as electrons, neutrons, and protons—can never be in the same energy state. For example, two electrons with the same quantum number can’t occupy the same atom.


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