Mesoamerican and South American Mythologies: Maya, Aztec, Inca

The Toltec and Aztec

What was the Aztec pantheon?

The Aztec absorbed gods of the peoples they conquered as well as those, especially, of the Teotihuacan and Toltec civilizations, so their pantheon takes different form at different times. The consistently major Aztec gods are the following, beginning with the four creator gods of the four directions:

Quetzalcoatl, a version of the ubiquitous Mesoamerican Feathered Serpent, was Lord of the West, god of fertility and of wisdom. In some stories he plays the role of human culture hero.

Tezcatlipoca, Lord of the North, was the god of night, providence, and matter, and was sometimes a rival of Quetzalcoatl. Xipe-Totec was Lord of the East and the ambiguous god of war, agriculture, disease, and spring. Huitzilopochtli was Lord of the South, god of fire, the sun, and of war.

Tlaloc was the ancient rain, thunder, and earthquake god. He required child sacrifices.

Coatlicue, the mother of Huitzilopochtli, was the great goddess of fertility, life, and death.


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