The publication of Irigaray’s (1932–) doctoral thesis, Speculum of the Other Woman (1974), led to her expulsion from further study at Lacan’s Freudian School at Vincennes. (In Europe a Ph.D. is not sufficient for university teaching, as it is in the United States, and a second dissertation or habilitation is required.) Irigary’s dissertation consisted of her theoretical analyses of a lecture by Sigmund Freud (1856–1939) on femininity and long quotations from the works of male philosophers, from Plato (c. 428–c. 348 B.C.E.) to Hegel (1770–1831). It was evident in the work that by a “speculum” she was referring to the concave mirrored medical instrument inserted into a woman’s body.