American Philosophy

New England Transcendentalists

What did Ralph Waldo Emerson mean by the “over-soul”?

Emerson’s idea of the soul came to him from reading the Bhagavad Gita and commentaries on it. Nonetheless, his ideas bear a striking similarity to European Neoplatonic thought. Emerson wrote:

The Supreme Critic on the errors of the past and the present, and the only prophet of that which must be, is that great nature in which we rest, as the earth lies in the soft arms of the atmosphere; that Unity, that Over-soul, within which every man’s particular being is contained and made one with all other; that common heart, of which all sincere conversation is the worship, to which all right action is submission; that overpowering reality which confutes our tricks and talents, and constrains every one to pass for what he is, and to speak from his character, and not from his tongue, and which evermore tends to pass into our thought and hand, and become wisdom, and virtue, and power, and beauty. We live in succession, in division, in parts, in particles. Meantime within man is the soul of the whole; the wise silence; the universal beauty, to which every part and particle is equally related; the eternal ONE.


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