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The Enlightenment Period

Immanuel Kant

What was Immanuel Kant’s second formulation of the categorical imperative?

According to Kant, all rational beings are intrinsically valuable, and in the Kingdom of Ends, no one is a means to the end of anyone else. In the world of affairs what we do and who we are have prices, but in the Kingdom of Ends there are no prices, only dignities. The second formulation of the categorical imperative is that one must always act to treat humanity (either as another person or oneself) as an end and never as a means. In other words, don’t use people!



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