Unanswered Questions

Beyond the Proton, Neutron, and Electron

What are force carriers?

The photon is called the force carrier for the electromagnetic interaction. That means that, for example, the attractive force between two oppositely charged objects is described mathematically not by an electric field, but by an exchange of (invisible) photons. The photon has neither mass nor charge, but does have angular momentum. The gluon carries the color force which, in combination with quarks, creates the strong force. The gluon also has neither mass nor charge. The weak nuclear force is carried by the massive W , W-, and Z° particles. Gravity is carried by a massless particle called the graviton.


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