The president possesses certain powers that are not enumerated in the U.S. Constitution. For example, although the Constitution does not grant the president the expressed power to remove administrators from their offices, as the chief executive the president holds power over executive branch officers, unless such removal power is limited by public law. Another implied constitutional power is derived from the president’s authority as commander in chief. Although Congress has the explicit power to declare war, the president holds the responsibility to protect the nation from sudden attack and has the ability to initiate military activities overseas without a formal declaration of war. Through the War Powers Resolution of 1973, Congress sought to define more clearly the conditions under which presidents unilaterally can authorize military action abroad.