He was promoted to brigadier general in September 1941, to major general in March 1942, and to full general in February 1943. He led the successful Allied excursion into North Africa and defeated enemy forces, leading to an invasion of Italy. In December 1943, President Franklin D. Roosevelt named him supreme allied commander. He planned the attack at D-Day on Normandy, and directed the final attack on Germany that effectively ended the war. He was promoted to a five-star general in December 1944.