Arguably, no. Human behavior is too complex, and influenced by too many factors to ever presume 100 percent certainty in our conclusions. Even the best studies depend to some extent on subjective judgments. Therefore we aim for the most rigorous methods possible, accounting for possible confounds, biases, and limitations in our research. That is also why we employ the peer review method for quality control before publishing our studies in journals, so that other experts in the field can independently and anonymously review each paper. Empirical research is the most rigorous method we have but it is not a crystal ball. Luckily, the best way to refute erroneous research is more research. Research can be used to correct its own mistakes.