Brain and Behavior

Neurotransmitters and Other Brain Chemicals

What are neuromodulators?

Many of the brain chemicals known to influence psychological processes are not actually neurotransmitters. These alternative forms of brain chemicals are also known as neuromodulators because they modulate the action of neurotransmitters. Such chemicals may include neuropeptides or neurohormones. Examples include opioids, oxytocin, and vasopressin, which are involved in pain processing and social behaviors, respectively.


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