The MMPI is one of the oldest and best known self-report questionnaires. It measures various aspects of personality and psychopathology. The original version of the MMPI was developed in the 1940s. The second edition of the MMPI, known as the MMPI-2, is currently in use and was last revised in 1989. Eight basic syndrome scales are derived from 567 self-report items in a true/false format. These are Hypochondriasis, Hysteria, Psychopathic Deviancy, Paranoia, Psychasthenia, Schizophrenia, and Mania. Additional scales include Masculinity-Femininity, Social Introversion and three validity scales to assess response biases, such as under-reporting or over-reporting. There is also a shorter MMPI-A for adolescents.