The Narcissistic Personality Inventory is a self-report questionnaire that assesses a person’s narcissistic personality traits based on criteria from an earlier version of the DSM. Published by Raskin and Hall in 1979, it has become a widely used test of narcissistic traits. In 1984, Robert Emmons divided the total NPI score into four distinct dimensions: leadership/authority, superiority/arrogance, self-absorption/self-admiration, and exploitativeness/entitlement. Emmons found that the first three subscales were correlated with adaptive personality traits, such as self-confidence, extraversion, initiative, and ambition, while the fourth subscale was correlated with measures of psychopathology. This study suggests that narcissistic traits can have both positive and negative implications.