The cerebellum, which is Latin for “little brain,” is the large, bulbous structure located below the back of the cortex. With rich connections to both the frontal lobe and the brain stem, it is integrally involved in motor control. The cerebellum mediates motor coordination, posture, and the smooth flow of movement. Damage to the cerebellum results in jerky, uncoordinated movements and problems with balance. More recent research has revealed that the cerebellum is involved with a range of cognitive functions as well.