Dominant forms of devotional expression in CCT tend to be associated with more extroverted ritual and supplicatory prayer. Classical and later Daoist sources, on the other hand, describe various meditative methods designed to help the practitioner turn inward. In fact, Chan Buddhism, the Chinese precursor to the more famous Japanese Zen, seems to have borrowed much from Daoism in this respect. The meditator “sits and forgets” in the presence of nature, engaging in the “fast of the mind.” Principal stages in Daoist meditative technique are the following: First the meditator calms the body by adopting a fixed posture and slow, regular breathing. As the meditator becomes one with his or her breathing, distractions begin to dissolve. To develop greater concentration, the meditator chooses a specific symbolic focus for detailed visualization. In the next stage, the meditator moves beyond this discursive intellectualizing into the “fast of the mind.” Leaving behind all symbols and ideas, the meditator enters a realm where images are irrelevant. Finally, the meditator loses all sense of self and attains union with the Dao.