DNA, RNA, and Chromosomes

How are genes controlled?

Genes are controlled by regulatory mechanisms that vary by whether the organism is a prokaryote or a eukaryote. Bacteria (prokaryote) genes can be regulated by DNA binding proteins that influence the rate of transcription, or by global regulatory mechanisms that refer to an organism’s response to specific environmental stimuli such as heat shock. This is particularly important in bacteria. Gene control in eukaryotes depends on a complex set of regulatory elements that turn genes off and on at specific times. Among these regulatory elements are DNA binding proteins as well as proteins that, in turn, control the activity of the DNA binding proteins.


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