What are the levels of structural organization in vertebrate animals, including humans?

Tissues, Organs, and Glands Read more from
Chapter Human Body

The four constituent humors of the body were identified as blood, phlegm, yellow bile, and black bile, originating in the heart, brain, liver, and spleen, respectively. Empedocles of Agrigentum (504–433 B.C.E.) probably originated the theory in which he equated the body fluids to the four elements of nature: earth, fire, air, and water. These humors could determine the health of the body and the personality of the person as well. To be in good health the humors should be in harmony within the body. Ill health could be remedied by treatments to realign the humors and reestablish the harmony.

Every vertebrate animal has four major levels of hierarchical organization: cell, tissue, organ, and organ system. Each level in the hierarchy is of increasing complexity, and all organ systems work together to maintain life.


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