Physics and Chemistry


What is a chemical bond?

A chemical bond is an attraction between the electrons present in the outermost energy level or shell of a particular atom. This outermost energy level is known as the valence shell. Atoms with an unfilled outer shell are less stable and tend to share, accept, or donate electrons. When this happens, a chemical bond is formed.

What are the major types of bonds?

There are three major types of chemical bonds: covalent, ionic, and hydrogen. The type of bond that is established is determined by the electron structure. Ionic bonds are formed when electrons are exchanged between two atoms, and the resulting bond is relatively weak. Covalent bonds, the strongest type of bond, occur when electrons are shared between atoms. Hydrogen bonds are temporary, but they are important because they are crucial to the shape of a particular protein and have the ability to be rapidly formed and reformed. The following chart explains the types of bonds and their characteristics.

   Three Types of Chemical Bonds
Type Strength Examples
Covalent Strong Bonds between hydrogen and oxygen in a molecule of water
Ionic Moderate Bond between Na and Cl in salt
Hydrogen Weak Bonds between molecules of water


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