What is the chemical composition of the ocean?

The ocean contains every known naturally occurring element plus various gases, chemical compounds, and minerals. Below is a sampling of the most abundant chemicals.

Constituent Concentration (parts per million)
Chloride 18,980
Sodium 10,560
Sulfate 2,560
Magnesium 1,272
Calcium 400
Potassium 380
Bicarbonate 142
Bromide 65
Strontium 13
Boron 4.6
Fluoride 1.4


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