Human Body

Introduction and Historical Background

Who is considered the founder of physiology?

As an experimenter, Claude Bernard (1813–1878) enriched physiology by his introduction of numerous new concepts into the field. The most famous of these concepts is that of the milieu intérieur or internal environment. The complex functions of the various organs are closely interrelated and are all directed to maintaining the constancy of internal conditions despite external changes. All cells exist in this aqueous (blood and lymph) internal environment, which bathes the cells and provides a medium for the elementary exchange of nutrients and waste material.


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