The Taney Court ruled unanimously in Louisville Railroad Co. v. Letson (1844) that a New York citizen could sue in federal court a railroad corporation that was chartered in South Carolina because the federal court had diversity jurisdiction, which permits a federal court to entertain suits between parties (litigants) from different states. The Court determined that the railroad company was deemed to be a citizen in the state in which it was chartered. The decision made it easier for corporations to sue and be sued in the federal courts.
Civil War critic and former U.S. representative Clement Vallandigham is arrested in his Dayton, Ohio, home on May 5, 1863, for declaring sympathy for the enemy. In Ex Parte Vallandigham, the U.S. Supreme Court ruled that it could not review a military court decision. Hulton Archive/Getty Images.