Industrial forecasting has applications in economics, both local and national. Weather affects businesses, transportation, and consumer activity in a wide variety of ways. Predicting heat or cold waves, for instance, can help utility companies plan for surges in consumers’ use of air conditioners and furnaces. Cities located in drier climates, such as Los Angeles, benefit from rain predictions that affect water reservoirs; local governments, for instance, can issue water conservation guidelines in times of drought to prevent resources from being stretched too thin. The sports industry, a multibillion dollar market, benefits from forecasts planning for rain, snow, or other harsh weather conditions. Forecasts of ice and snow can help transportation firms plan shipments; and even the fast food industry is affected by weather. For example, research has shown that people order a lot more pizza deliveries in cold and inclement weather. In short, industrial forecasting is of great interest to business and government, as it helps people plan for potential losses (winter blizzards or hurricanes routinely cost local economies billions of dollars) or redistribution of resources.