Currently, the following countries have weather satellite programs: Japan, Russia, China, India, South Korea, and Europe (European Space Agency). Japan launched its Geosynchronous Meteorological Satellite Himawari in 1995, but in 2003 it malfunctioned, and so NOAA permitted the Japan Meteorological Agency use of the older GOES-9 satellite. The European Organisation for the Exploitation of Meteorological Satellites (EUMETSAT) operates what is now the second generation of METEOSAT satellites. Europe launched its first weather satellite in 1995, and this second generation came online in 2004 with METEOSAT-8. This satellite scans the entire globe every 15 minutes. China launched the Feng-Yun in 1990, and there have been several successors since then. That same year, Russia launched GOMS (Geosynchronous Operational Meteorological Satellite). The Indian Satellite (INSAT) made orbit in 1990, and was used for both weather observations and communications. It was followed by INSAT-2 through INSAT-4 series, before the KALPANA-1 was operational in 2002. The KALPANA-1 satellite is India’s first exclusively meteorological satellite. South Korea’s first weather satellite is the Communication, Ocean and Meteorological Satellite (COMS), which was launched in 2005.