A Who’s Who of the Norman World

Adelaide (c. 1075 - 1118) Third wife of Roger I and mother of Roger II.  Regent for her son from 1101 - 1112

Alexius Comnenus (c. 1056 - 1118) Byzantine emperor at the time of the First Crusade.  Defeated attempts by Robert Guiscard and Bohemond I to invade the empire

Bernard of Clairvaux (1090 - 1153) Cistercian Abbot and dominant figure of the early 12th century.

Bohemond I (c. 1058 - 1111) Eldest son of Robert Guiscard; founded the Principality of Antioch

Charles the Fat (839 - 888) Frankish king who attempted to stop Viking raids by allowing them to settle in Normandy

Christodulus (d. 1131) First admiral of Norman Sicily under Roger II

Constance (1154 - 1198) Sister of Roger II; inherited Sicily when William the Good died

Count Roger (c. 1031 - 1101) Youngest of the Hauteville brothers; conquered Sicily and consolidated Norman rule of the island.  Also known as the ‘Great Count’

Drogo de Hauteville (c. 1010 - 1051) Younger brother of William Iron-Arm who succeeded him as Duke of Apulia and Calabria

Edward the Confessor (c. 1003 - 1066) Anglo-Saxon king of England who died without a clear successor

Emma (c. 985 - 1012) Sister of Duke Richard II; wife of Ethelred the Unready and mother of Edward the Confessor

Ethelred the Unready (c. 968 - 1016) Anglo-Saxon king who tried to stop Viking raids by bribing them.  Father of Edward the Confessor

Frederick I Barbarossa (1122 - 1190) Holy Roman Emperor; invaded Italy in an attempt to conqueror Sicily

Frederick II Barbarossa (1194 - 1250) Holy Roman Emperor and King of Sicily and Jerusalem; Son of Henry VI and grandson of Roger II.  Nicknamed ‘the wonder of the world’.

George Maniaces (d. 1043) Byzantine general who employed Norman mercenaries in an attempt to conquer Sicily

George of Antioch (d. 1151/2) Succeeded Christodulus as admiral; helped establish a Norman presence in North Africa

Godwin (Earl of Wessex, c. 1001 - 1053) Powerful advisor to Edward the Confessor and father of Tostig and Harold

Gregory VII (c. 1015 - 1085) Reforming pope who offered Robert Guiscard legitimacy in exchange for protection against Henry IV

Harald Hardrada (c. 1015 - 1066) Viking King of Norway; invaded England in 1066 and died at the Battle of Stamford Bridge

Harold Godwinson (c. 1022 - 1066) Last Anglo-Saxon king of England.  Killed by William the Conqueror at the Battle of Hastings

Henry IV (1050 - 1106) Holy Roman Emperor who tried to invade Rome while Robert Guiscard was occupied by Byzantium

Henry VI (1165 - 1197) Holy Roman Emperor and husband of Constance; conquered the Norman Kingdom of Sicily

Maio of Bari (d. 1160) Favorite of William the Bad; most powerful figure in Sicily until his assassination

Manuel Comnenus (1118 - 1180) Last strong Byzantine emperor of the 12th century; campaigned against Roger II

Margaritus (1149 - 1197) Admiral of Sicily under William the Good; nicknamed ‘the new Neptune’

Pope Leo IX (1002 - 1054) Led a great anti-Norman coalition to expel the Normans from southern Italy; captured by Robert Guiscard at the Battle of Civitate

Pope Urban II (c. 1042 - 1099) Launched the First Crusade to recover Jerusalem for Christendom

Raymond of Toulouse (c. 1041 - 1105) Main rival to Bohemond I for leadership of the First Crusade

Richard the Fearless (933 - 996) Son of William Longsword; first Duke of Normandy

Richard the Lionheart (1157 - 1199) Norman king of England who visited Sicily en route to the Third Crusade

Richard II (c. 962 - 1026) Second Duke of Normandy; also known as ‘Richard the Good’

Robert Guiscard (c. 1015 - 1085) Half-brother of Drogo; conquered much of southern Italy and was elected Duke of Apulia and Calabria.  Known as ‘The Crafty’

Robert the Devil (c. 1009 - 1035) Third Duke of Normandy, father of William the Conqueror

Roger Borsa (c. 1060 - 1111) Legitimate but ineffectual son of Robert Guiscard; succeeded his father as Duke of Apulia and Calabria

Roger II (1095 - 1154) First Norman king of Sicily; remembered as its greatest ruler

Rollo (c. 860 - 931) Viking raider who founded Normandy

Tancred de Hauteville (c. 980 - 1041) Poor Norman knight and founder of the Hauteville family; father of at least twelve sons including William Iron-Arm, Drogo, Robert Guiscard, and Count Roger

Tancred of Galilee (1075 - 1112) Nephew of Bohemond I; regent of Antioch in Bohemond’s absence

Tancred of Lecce (d. 1194) Last Norman ruler of Sicily; seized the kingdom when William the Good died.  Nicknamed ‘the Monkey king’

Tostig (c. 1026 - 1066) Younger brother of Harold; killed at the Battle of Stamford Bridge while attempting to return from exile

William Iron-Arm (c. 1005 - 1046) Eldest of the Hauteville brothers; elected Duke of Apulia and Calabria

William Longsword (c. 900 - 942) Son of Rollo; second ruler of Normandy

William the Bad (1131 - 1166) Son of Roger II and second king of Sicily

William the Conqueror (c. 1026 - 1087) Illegitimate son of Robert the Devil, conquered England in 1066

William the Good (1155 - 1189) Third king and last legitimate Hauteville ruler of Sicily


Aachen: Capital of the Holy Roman Empire

Apulia: Region of southern Italy including the ‘heel’ of the peninsula.  Became the center of Norman power under Robert Guiscard

Byzantine Empire: (330 - 1453) The eastern half of the old Roman Empire

Calabria: Region of southern Italy forming the ‘toe’ of the peninsula

Constantinople: Capital of the Byzantine Empire

Holy Roman Empire: (962 - 1806) Central European State that claimed to be the rebirth of the old Western Roman Empire.  Despite its name it was based largely in modern day Germany

Norman Kingdom of Sicily: (1130 - 1194) Founded by Roger II; included Sicily, the south of Italy, and parts of North Africa

Palermo: Capital of the Norman Kingdom of Sicily

Papal States: Collection of lands around Rome ruled directly by the pope.  Often in conflict with its immediate neighbors, the Norman Kingdom of Sicily, and the Holy Roman Empire

Principality of Antioch: (1098 - 1268) Crusader State based around the major city of Antioch; founded by Bohemond I during the First Crusade


Battle of Civitate: (1053) Norman defeat of the armies of Pope Leo IX; resulted in papal recognition of Hauteville rule in southern Italy

First Crusade: (1098) Launched by Pope Urban II to reclaim the Holy Lands from Islam

Fourth Crusade: (1204) Venetian-led crusade which sacked Constantinople

Treaty of Saint-Clair-sur-Epte: Agreement between Rollo and Charles the Simple that created Normandy

Varangian Guard: Elite forces of the Byzantine army.  Usually composed of Norse or Anglo-Saxon warriors


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