Northern philanthropic groups were among the organizations that aided the Historically Black Colleges and Universities early on. In 1867 George Peabody, a Massachusetts merchant, created the Peabody Education Fund to benefit elementary education. In 1882 Connecticut manufacturer John F. Slater established the Slater Fund to support four-year high schools as well as colleges. Established in 1888, the Daniel Hand fund began to provide for the needy and indigent blacks in the South. There were also the Anna T. Jeanes Fund for Rudimentary Schools for Southern Negroes, or the Jeanes Fund, founded in 1907, and the Julius Rosenwald Fund, which was created in 1917 and established rural schools and some high schools for blacks in the South. The Southern Education Foundation, established in 1937, the General Education Board, and the Carnegie Corporation were also sources of support for black colleges, library collections, library buildings on college campuses, as well as black branches of public libraries, teacher education, and other programs.