The Harlem Renaissance, variously identified as the Negro Renaissance and the New Negro Movement, was a literary, artistic, and cultural movement centered in the Harlem section of New York, but apparent in urban areas in other sections of the United States as well. The date of the renaissance is fluid. Some claim that it flourished from the mid-1910s to the mid-1930s. Others claim that it occurred during the 1920s. Clearly, there were precursors to the renaissance, beginning with the early 1900s and extending up to the date popularly assigned. The Harlem Renaissance represented a shift from a conciliatory stance to black intellectualism and embraced literature, poetry, and visual and performing arts, as well as the social and economic problems that black America faced.