Reproductive System

Female Reproductive System

How does the environment of the vagina protect it against infections?

The acidic environment of the vagina—its normal pH is 3.5 to 4.5—restricts the growth of many pathogenic organisms. If the acidity of the vagina is reduced, bacterial, fungal, or parasitic organisms may increase, thus increasing the risk of infections known as vaginitis. Yeast infections are common infections of the vagina.

Signs of breast cancer. (From Bickley, L.S., and Szilagyi, P. Bates’ Guide to Physical Examination and History Taking. 8th Ed. Philadelphia: Lippincott, Williams & Wilkins, 2003.)

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