Digestive System

Upper Gastrointestinal Tract

What are the four regions of the stomach?

The stomach, which is located directly under the dome of the diaphragm and protected by the rib cage, is a J-shaped organ that has a maximum length of 10 inches (25 centimeters) and a maximum width of 6 inches (15 centimeters). It is divided into four regions: 1) the cardia, 2) the fundus, 3) the body, and 4) the pylorus. Each region is slightly different anatomically. The cardia is located near the gastroesophageal junction. The fundus is the small, rounded part of the stomach located above the gastroesophageal sphincter. The body is the main region of the stomach. It is the area between the fundus and the “J” shape of the stomach. Most food storage and mixing occur in the body. The pylorus is the bottom curve of the “J” shape. It is located at the junction between the stomach and the small intestine.

The parts of the stomach: 1 = Duodenum; 2 = Lesser curvature; 3 = Lower esophageal sphincter; 4 = Esophagus; 5 = Cardia; 6 = Fundus; 7 = Greater curvature; 8 = Body; 9 = Serosa; 10 = Muscularis: longitudinal muscle; 11 = Muscularis: circular muscle; 12 = Muscularis: oblique muscle; 13 = Mucosa; 14 = Rugae of mucosa; 15 = Pyloric antrum; 16 = Pylorus; 17 = Pyloric canal; 18 = Pyloric sphincter. (From Stedman’s Medical Dictionary. 27th Ed. Baltimore: Lippincott, Williams & Wilkins, 2000.)

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