Osteoporosis, from the Greek meaning “porous bones,” is a disease of the bone that causes an increase in the risk of fractures and breaks. In particular, the bone mineral density goes down, and the reduction causes the bones to deteriorate. In advanced osteoporosis, the bone is literally porous, with small holes altering the bone structure, allowing the bones to break more easily. In women after menopause, osteoporosis is called primary type 1 or postmenopausal osteoporosis; after the age of seventy-five, it is often called primary type 2 or senile osteoporosis. Overall, more women then men suffer from the disease.
The top part of a turtle shell is called the carapace, and the bottom is the plastron.