The first mention of diophantine equations was by Greek (Hellenic) mathematician Diophantus (c. 210-c. 290 C.E.). In his treatise *Arithmetica,* he solved equations with several variables for integral solutions—or what we call diophantine equations today. (For more about Dio-phantus in history, see “History of Mathematics.”) These are represented by one equation with at least two variables, such as *x* and *y,* and whose solutions have to be whole numbers (or integers). These equations either have no solutions, or an infinite or finite number of solutions. *Diophantine analysis* is the mathematical term for how to determine integer solutions for such algebraic equations.