More and more Chinese immigrated to the United States in the 1860s and 1870s. Much of the workforce in California consisted of Chinese laborers. When the Chinese began competing for jobs with others, pressure built to curb the level of immigration. Congress passed a law that abrogated a treaty the U.S. signed with China that specifically allowed Chinese immigration. Hayes vetoed this measure and authorized Secretary of State Evarts and a commission headed by James B. Angell to negotiate a new treaty with China. The Treaty of 1880 allowed the government to limit immigration from China, but also provided for the protection of rights for Chinese already in the United States.