Samuel Nelson, a New York jurist, was Tyler’s only appointment to the U.S. Supreme Court. Nelson had served as a New York state circuit judge and on the New York Supreme Court. He served twenty-seven years on the U.S. Supreme Court. Nelson was not Tyler’s first choice, as the Senate rejected several of his earlier nominations, including his secretary of the treasury John C. Spencer, Edward King, Reuben Walworth, and John Read. Tyler actually had two vacancies to fill, but the Senate would not accept his nominations, or would refuse to vote on them.