Why is the sea blue?
There is no single cause for the colors of the sea. What is seen depends in part on when and from where the sea is observed. Eminent authority can be found to support almost any explanation. Some explanations include absorption and scattering of light by pure water; suspended matter in sea water; the atmosphere; and color and brightness variations of the sky. For example, one theory is that when sunlight hits seawater, part of the white light, composed of different wavelengths of various colors, is absorbed, and some of the wavelengths are scattered after colliding with the water molecules. In clear water, red and infrared light are greatly absorbed but blue is least absorbed, so that the blue wavelengths are reflected out of the water. The blue effect requires a minimum depth of 10 feet (3 meters) of water.
What causes waves in the ocean?
The most common cause of surface waves is air movement (the wind). Waves within the ocean can be caused by tides, interactions among waves, submarine earthquakes or volcanic activity, and atmospheric disturbances. Wave size depends on wind speed, wind duration, and the distance of water over which the wind blows. The longer the distance the wind travels over water, or the harder it blows, the higher the waves. As the wind blows over water it tries to drag the surface of the water with it. The surface cannot move as fast as air, so it rises. When it rises, gravity pulls the water back, carrying the falling water’s momentum below the surface. Water pressure from below pushes this swell back up again. The tug of war between gravity and water pressure constitutes wave motion. Capillary waves are caused by breezes of less than two knots. At 13 knots the waves grow taller and faster than they grow longer, and their steepness cause them to break, forming whitecaps. For a whitecap to form, the wave height must be one-seventh the distance between wave crests.